The article "A Genomic View of Mixing History of Tungus-speaking Manchus in Northeast China", published in journal Evolutionary and Population Genetics in 2021.
The article compares DNA differences between Liaoning Manchus and ancient Heishui-Mohe, and it clearly shows huge differences between modern Manchus and Xibe and other modern Tungus speaking peoples. The autosomes of modern Manchus are closer to Han genes.
It is therefore believed that Manchus, being members of old branch of Tungus, should have a consistent genetic profile with other Tungusic groups. However, we found that Liaoning Manchus have close genetic ties and a significant sign of acceptance. with Han Chinese. The Manchu population was an exception to agreed upon genetic structure of Tungus-speaking people, probably due to large-scale population migrations and genetic admixture over past hundred years. Members of ancient clade must have shared genetic characteristics consistent with other Tungus-speaking groups. However, we found a close genetic relationship and significant evidence of admixture between Manchus in Liaoning and Han Chinese. Being an exception to similar genetic structure of Tungus-speaking populations, Manchus are due to large scale of immigration and integration over past hundred years.)
The main genes of modern Manchu people come from ancient population in Yellow River basin, but there is also a small connection with ancient population of Heishui Mohe.
We have observed that Manchus can be modeled as descending from 32.4% of Mohe people, with remaining ancestry from ancient populations associated with agriculture in Yellow River basin. (Translation: We noticed that 32.4% of Manchu ancestors descended from Heishui Mohe, and remaining ancestral genes descended from an ancient population associated with agriculture in Yellow River basin.)
It can be seen from this picture that compared to modern Manchus_LN and Sibo-Sibo_DG, Sibo people received more genes from ancient Heishui-Mohe, and Manchus received more genes from YR_MN (Middle Neolithic of Yellow River Basin) population. More genes.
In another image, modern Manchu_LN and Xibo Xibo_DG are very different from ancient Mohe.
It is very interesting that, contrary to opinions of many netizens, modern Xibo Xibo_DG is very different from ancient Xianbei (Mongolia_IA_Xianbei), and this cannot be a true inheritance relationship.
Comparing more Tungusic populations, modern Manchus are very different from other modern Tungusic and Mongolian populations.
Compared to other Tungus or Mongolian populations of Hezhen, Mongolia, and Xibo, we noticed that Liaoning Manchus have more ancestry from agricultural-related populations in Yellow River basin and southern China, and fewer ancestry from northern ancient groups such as Heishui_Mohe and Xianbei (translation: compared to other Tungus or Mongolian populations such as Hezhen, Mongol and Xibe, etc., it can be seen that Liaoning Manchus received more ancestors from agricultural-related populations in Yellow River valley and south China genes, and fewer genes were obtained from northern ancient populations such as Heishui Mohe and Xianbei.)
Combined with another article "Genomic Formation of Human Populations in East Asia", it can be concluded that 43% ± 14% of Heishui Mohe descended from Neolithic ancestors of Heilongjiang province, and 57% of ancestors descended from southern population. This article "Genomic Insight. According to data set out in book "History of mixing of population of Tungus-speaking Manchus in Northeast China", 32.4% of autosomes of Manchus descend from Heishui-Mohe, and 67.6% of their ancestors descend from Neolithic population in Yellow River basin. What percentage of Manchu genes come from Neolithic ancestors in Heilongjiang? 0.43*0.324=13.9%, answer is 13.9%. More genes come from ancient population of Yellow River basin in south, so autosomes of today's Manchus are very close to those of northern Han.