In July 2021, journals Human Genetics and Human Genetics published article "The origin of modern non-African human Y chromosomes from Southeast Asia": "All human Y chromosomes outside of Africa today originate from Southeast Asia." that 50,000–60,000 years ago, all humans outside of Africa, all of their paternal Y chromosomes, originated in East Asia and Southeast Asia.
One more thing, original title of this article was "Early Western Eurasian male Y-chromosome replacement from east", "Early Eastern male Y-chromosome replacement of Western Eurasian males", because title of this article may be Some European and American reviewers very upset: why did men from East Asia displace men from Western Europe 50,000 years ago? This article was delayed by journal editor for more than 2 years without a schedule and was not published until author agreed to change modest title. Once again, I lament arrogance, discrimination, and glass heart deep in hearts of some Westerners, tsk tsk.
That's why we can see two manuscripts on Internet with different titles but exactly same content. (Online 2019 and Journal Published 2021, below are titles of original 2019 online edition)
1. Ancient DNA Data
The article analyzed 23 ancient DNA data. These ancient genes come from China, Russia, Italy, Czech Republic, Romania, Belgium, Austria and other countries of Stay-Ishim), whose male line is K-M2335, nearest Czech Republic 30,000 years ago, and his male lineage is C-V20, location of these ancient human remains is shown in figure below.
Tianyuandong Ancient Man's Location in Beijing, China, 39,000 years ago, is also located there, and his paternal lineage is K2b-M1205. This type is generic type R, Q, M, and S, of which R is distributed in Europe, Q among Indians of North and South America, M in Australia and New Guinea, and S in New Guinea and Indonesia.
This fact really makes some Europeans unacceptable. Maternal ancestors of modern Europeans are European aborigines (mitochondrial DNA - U2), and paternal ancestors came from northern China 39,000 years ago (downstream R from K2b).
The article considers that after humans left Africa (50,000-60,000 years ago), about 52,000-58,000 years ago in HPD (HPD means 95% highest posterior density, 95% highest posterior density, can be considered similar to normal 95% confidence interval distribution of states, same below), gene exchange with ancient Neanderthals, resulting in about 2% of autosomal genes in region of recombination in modern humans are descended from Neanderthals.
The evolution of human migration after mixing with Neanderthals was not discussed earlier in this article. After analysis, article concludes that about 50,000 years ago all F, all C and all D where they diverged, Both are in East Asia - a region of Southeast Asia in eastern Asia.
2. Early C differentiation
A total of 20 ancient paternal lines have been measured in 23 records 30,000–45,000 years old, of which 10 were C lines, which is half. It can be said that king of Eurasia was ancient C. Today, 40,000-year-old descendants of C1 throughout Eurasia, C-V20 (about 1-2% in total) in Europe, C-M8, C-F1640 are unique to South China, C- M38, unique to Australia and New Guinea, C-P92, unique to Arabian Peninsula, and K96, unique to Indian Peninsula, are descendants of an ancient C1 population from 48,800 to 47,200 years ago. C1 must have spread across Eurasia 40,000 years ago.
C1 and C2, which are abundant in China and Mongolia, diverged between 65,900 and 48,800 years ago. Today, number of C2 is much greater than C1. The original origin of C2 must be in northern China and Mongolia. It only began to spread 4,000 years later.
Ancient European Palaeolithic Cro-Magnon hunter, main part of his paternal line is C1a2-V20, followed by a small number of ancient I.
3. Differentiation D
Due to lack of ancient DNA from ancient type D, only from distribution of modern type D, article believes that modern type D must also originate in East Asia. It can be seen from differentiation tree that Age of differentiation D is about 6.52-4.65 ten thousand years ago.
D and E share a common ancestor, and they diverged from CF, ancestor of C and F, about 6.85 to 6.52 years ago.
The data on ancient DNA is shown below (only data older than 30,000 years was selected, D was not found, most of ancient data is type C)
Fourth, evolution of F
Type F is most common among modern humans, and its oldest offshoots are found in East Asia, including F2a and F2b, etc., and divergence time is approximately 65,900-48,800 years ago, of which F2a is based on five Lahu are represented by family individuals. five Lahu samples (HGDP01317, HGDP01318, HGDP01320, HGDP01321 and HGDP01322)
Ancient F-types intermingled with Neanderthals, and today's F-type descendants all have Neanderthal elements. (1-2%), mixing with Neanderthals, making up ~2% of all non-Africans.
4.85 to 4.72 million years ago K diverged from population F. Known ancient DNA of population K includes K-M2308 from Ust-Ishim (Ust-Ishim) in Siberia 45,000 years ago and Beijing Tianyuandong Ancient Man. K-M1205, dated 39,000 years ago. This distribution shows that ancient type K must have diverged in northern part of Asian continent, from northern China to southern Siberia. Types with largest number of people, including R, O, etc. must have originated in northern China 48,000 years ago. Today type R, which accounts for 40-90% of population in various parts of Europe, has its paternal origin in northern China in vast areas of southern Siberia.
5. Analysis of data on modern people
This article has selected a large body of modern human data, including Simons Genome Diversity Project (SGDP) (Mallick et al., 2016), Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) (Bergstrom et al., 2020), as well as data from a known thousand individuals Curry sampled 50 individuals with full coverage from 1000 Genomes project dataset (Poznik et al. 2016) and selected early bifurcation data such as C, D and F from Tibetan, Andaman, Malay Singaporean and other databases.
From analysis of modern human data, it is also concluded that ancient populations such as CDF originated from Southeast Asia.
6. Overview and Perspectives on History of Human Migration
As for history of early human migration, we must take it seriously and with open eyes. Migration and interbreeding of ancient people were very frequent.
From 200,000 to 60,000 years ago, all people lived in Africa. About 60,000 years ago, an ancient group emerged from Africa (Anderts and Denisovans) united, and then one group migrated to Southeast Asia to become F population. In this matter, with exception of F-type in southern East Asia, entire Eurasian continent common as C-type.
Differentiation occurred approximately 60,000 to 50,000 years ago. One type F branch migrated west to form IGH and other types, while another branch migrated north to become K group in northern China 45,000 years ago. , K population differentiated into K2a and K2b in northern China, and development of these new populations gradually replaced and diluted original C and D populations. mainland The crowds are covered and diluted.
The K2b population split into two branches in northern China, one MS went south to form M and S types of Oceania today, and other formed P1 population in southern Siberia that existed 44,000–41,000 years ago. Q and R populations, Q population entered America 10,000 years ago and formed Indians, and R population moved to Europe from southern Siberia and Eastern Europe 4000-5000 years ago and displaced most of local paternal lines (I, J, G, E and C1a2).
Population K2a is closer to us. Lower-Ust-Ishim ancient K-M2308 - K-M2335, which differentiated into NO type 41500-36800 years ago, of which 36800-30500 years ago Type O was formed many years ago, and today Type O is main type in China, other parts of East Asia, and Southeast Asia. Ancient DNA evidence shows that this type was main type in South China 7000-5000 years ago.
The sister type O is type N, which was once widespread in northern China. Until 9000-5000 years ago, main population of type N in Northern China included Bianbiandong culture, Xiaojingshan culture, Dawenkou culture, part of Yangshao population, Hongshan culture, the Xiajiadian culture, until 5000 years ago type O gradually moved from south to north. The N-type branch started from Northern China 8000 years ago, first penetrated into Siberia and then into Eastern Europe and Northern Europe, it is about 60% Nordic Finns, 5% Swedish and other Germans, 20% Russians, 1% British ancestors.
The history of mankind tells us that people of different races are connected and equal.