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The ancient DNA of Heishui kingdom in Gansu: immigrants from frontier garrison of Han Dynasty are fully consistent with modern Han paternal line.

On March 10, 2022, "Genetic Frontier" research team of Fudan University (Gene Research Frontier) published "Gender-mediated Survival Strategy, Transition of Heishuiguo People to Hexi Corridor of Han Dynasty" translated "Dynasty Gender Han". Deviation, population integration and changes in survival strategies of population of Heishuiguo settlement in Hexi Corridor, there are 31 ancient Chinese DNA data covering period from 118 B.C. they are all from Yellow River basin, and female line is local aborigines, whose type of paternal line is exactly same as that of modern Han people of Northern China.

1. Ruins of Heishuigo and methods of their production

Heishui Kingdom, located in Ganzhou District of Zhangye City, Gansu Province, is an important site in Xihe Ancient Corridor. However, it should be noted that all examples from Heishui State Cemetery in this article are from 118 B.C. to 191 AD, that is, after Huo Qiubing captured Hexi Corridor (121 BC). (Currently, it is no longer capital of Yuezhi people. According to some circumstantial evidence in eastern Xinjiang, it can be assumed that paternal line of ancient Yuezhi people was mainly R1a and Q1b). The DNA samples in this article actually come from ancient Han immigrants who guarded border.

There have been many changes in agriculture and livestock in Hexi Corridor:

The early Majiao culture (5800-4800 years ago) and Qijia culture (4200-3900 years ago) were mainly agricultural, later Xiba culture (3800-3300 years ago) was culture of northern foot of Tien Shan. The mountains (3500-3000 years) were a combination of agriculture and animal husbandry; until middle of Western Han Dynasty, local Laz culture (2900-2100 years ago) and mountain horse culture (2700-2100 years ago) nomadic culture, which mainly breeds sheep, goats, horses and camels (the Yuezhi people lead a nomadic lifestyle); after middle of Western Han Dynasty, local agriculture developed rapidly, and pigs and chickens became most important domestic animals. This drastic change in population and production methods may have something to do with Han immigration after Western Han dynasty took over Hexi corridor.

For early Shajing culture, before Han Dynasty, claim is supported by excavated relics and faunal remains from Shajing culture (2900-2100 cal. years) and Shangma culture (2700-2100 cal. years) sites. The number of domestic pigs dropped dramatically during same period, while sheep/goats, cattle, horses, and camels became main livestock along Hexi Corridor. (Translation: Before Han Dynasty, this claim is supported by discovered artifacts and fauna, monuments of Shajing culture (2900-2100 BC) and Shangma culture (2700-2100 AD), horses and camels became main domestic animals in same period .)

After Han Dynasty, area became an agricultural area. However, during and after Han Dynasty (202 BC - 220. In any case, during Han Dynasty, agriculture developed rapidly and became a sustainable local livelihood strategy)

At ruins of Heishui Kingdom, agriculture has become dominant mode of production. This strongly suggests that advanced agricultural technology became widespread in Hexi Corridor during this time period. The remains of chickens, pigs, dogs, sheep/goats, cattle, and horses found in tombs of Heishuiguo Han Dynasty should be viewed in this context. . The chicken became most common pet during this period, followed by pigs. The remains of horses were found in tombs of Han Dynasty in kingdom of Heishui, which is precisely this background. Chickens became most common pets during this period, then pigs.)

2. 31 ancient specimens in this article

In article, a total of 31 ancient human specimens were extracted and Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA were tested. Ruin data can be divided into

Based on dating from 14th century, tomb morphology, and grave goods (Li, 2021), burials at Heishuigo have been divided into four stages: Stage 1 - Middle Western Han Dynasty (Late Dynas 118-49)Western Han Dynasty (48 BC - 6 AD), Phase 3, Wangman Xin Dynasty to Early Eastern Han Dynasty (7 - 67 AD), and Phase 4, mid to late Eastern Han Dynasty (67–191). SE). (Translation: Based on carbon-14 dating, shape of tomb, and combination of funerary items, Heishui State Cemetery can be divided into four stages: 1. Middle period of Western Han Dynasty, 118-49 BC; 2. Late period Western Han Dynasty 48 BC-49 BC to 6 AD 3. New Wang Mang Dynasty and Early Eastern Han Dynasty 7-67 AD 4. Late Eastern Han Dynasty 67-191 AD)

Early Han samples in this article roughly correspond to 118 BC. - 6 AD, and late Han - approximately 7-191 AD.

The Y and mtDNA data of these 31 ancient humans are as follows:

Three parent elements

In terms of patrilineage, O2 is largest type, and O2-002611 should be largest type. This type is more common in Eastern Han region, accounting for 26.7% of Heishuigo's cemeteries. These Han Dynasty frontier immigrants, other patrilineal Y types are also almost entirely consistent with modern Han nationality.

The Oγ-IMSJST002611 (26.7%), Oα-M117 (13.3%), and Oβ-F46 (3.3%) haplogroups represent three main founding paternal lines and cover more than 40% of modern Han Chinese (estimated 16% for Oα, 11% for Oβ, and 14% for Oγ). These three lineages are believed to be descended from Neolithic farmers in Yellow River basin (Yan et al., 2014). These three haplogroups are also most common among Heishuiguo population, making up 43.3% of total, similar to modern Han population. calculations. (Haplogroups Oγ-IMSJST002611 (26.7%), Oα-M117 (13.3%), and Oβ-F46 (3.3%) of Heishuihe cemetery represent three main paternal components, accounting for 40% of modern Han population. Above (of which Oα is about 16%, Oβ is about 11%, and Oγ is about 14%. These three lineages are believed to be descended from Neolithic cultivators in Yellow River basin. These three haplotypes also belong to Heishui State Cemetery. The most common, being 43.3% of total, as in modern Han population.)

Looking at paternal lineage of these ancient specimens, paternal lineage of these ancient specimens is mostly made up of Han immigrants, and there is no obvious other ethnic composition. It can also be seen from another aspect that paternal lineage of population of Central Plains in Han Dynasty largely corresponds to modern Han nationality, and there were no significant changes.

By interpopulation comparisons (PCA and Fst heatmap) with reference populations (e.g. Southern Han, Northern Han, Hui, Mongols, and Tibetans), we were able to show a closer paternal genetic relationship to Northern Han and Hui populations. Among groups in Heishuigo (translation: comparing (PCA and Fst heat map) with reference populations (e.g. Southern Han, Northern Han, Hui, Mongols and Tibetans), we can see that Heishuigo cemetery population showing more paternal genetic relationships with Northern Han and Hui.)

A typical O1b-F1759 from present-day Jiaodong was 10%, O1a-F1736 from Yangtze River Delta was 3.3%, and O1b-F2924 from South China was 3.3%, indicating that immigrants in this area was not. limited to Central Plains, as well as South China and Shandong regions.

Third, matrilineal situation

The matrilineal lineage of Heishui kingdom has a rare type in Central Plains, close to modern Mongol-speaking population, and also close to Han people in Northwest China, but different from Han people in East China. .

On maternal side, three Heishuigo populations are closely knit, reflecting early Han to late Han genetic continuity. At same time, Heishuigo population is close to Mongolian-speaking (for example, Buryats) and northwestern Han people (for example, Ningxia). Han population, indicating an indigenous female origin. The Mongolian-speaking (e.g. Buryat) and northwestern Han population, which indicates matrilineal descent, is an indigenous population)

Fourth, male immigrants are consistent with historical data

Historical records show that Western Han Dynasty moved immigrants here from Central Plains, and Bamboo Slips unearthed records that immigrants came from following 21 counties: these male immigrants in county 21 are from Middle and Lower Yellow River, He 'nei, Langya, Changyi, Pinggan, Dahe, Chenliu, Runan, Julu, Yingchuan, Shangdang Dang County, Henan Henan County, Jiyin Jiyin County, Nanyang Nanyang County, Hedong Hedong County, Zhao State Zhao State, Dong Dong County, Liang State Liang State, Zhangye County Zhangye, Huaiyang County Huaiyang and Weiwei County)

Analysis of article shows that immigrants of ancient Western Han Dynasty were mostly male, which led to ancient DNA of Heishuigo burial ground and special structure of patrilineal + local matrilineal in middle and lower reaches. The Yellow River appeared.

This is consistent with historical record, where major migration events were often male-dominated migrations, which often included migration to build garrisons, political migration, and migration of minority groups. Young males usually built garrisons and most of them could not help but take their families outside small local garrisons a small number of immigrants, young men build fortifications, most of them cannot bring their families to local area)

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