In September 2022, Fudan University Research Group published an article "Ancient DNA from Tubo Kingdom-Associated Tombs in Northeast Tibetan Plateau Shows Genetic Relationships with Both Tibeto-Burmese and Altaic Populations" (Ancient Kingdom Tubo in northeast of Qinghai Plateau). - Tibetan Highlands The corresponding tombs show that their genes are a fusion of Tibeto-Burmese population and Altai population), demonstrating for first time genetic makeup of ancient Tuyuhuns (Murong Xianbei + ancient Qiang people).
1. Dulan Ancient Tomb
The Dulan Ancient Cemetery is located in Dulan County, Haixi, Mongolian-Tibet Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, at southeastern end of Qaidam Basin. It was once political, economic and cultural center of Tuyuhun tribe in history. old grave.
The ruling class of Tuyuhun people is Murong Xianbei branch of Liaodong District. They migrated to Haixi pastures in Qinghai, conquered local Qiang tribes, and merged with these Qiang people. In 329 AD, Tuyuhun people established their own kingdom centered in Qinghai and made Dulan their capital. In 663 AD, Tuyuhun's regime was destroyed by Tubo and became state of Tubo Kingdom.
The eight tuyuhuns discovered this time represent tombs from 700-900 AD, 200-300 years after extermination of tuyuhuns. Among these individuals there must be a mixed population of Tuyuhun people and Tubo people.
2. Maternal paternal lines in ancient tomb of Dulan
Among 8 males, one could not be classified due to poor data quality. Of remaining 7 individuals, O2a2b1a1a1 (28.5%) and R1a1a1b2a (28.5%) were most, while rest were N1b2 (14.3%). %), O2 (14.3%), O2a2b (14.3%).
In terms of types, O2a2b1a1a1, N1b2, O2, and O2a2b of Sino-Tibetan population constitute a large majority, reflecting fact that among ancient Tuyuhun people, ruling Qiang people constituted largest population.
It is clear that R1a1a1b2a belongs to Altaic language family. This type appeared many times in ancient populations such as Xiongnu, Eastern Turks and Mongols, and is a patrilineal type of ancient Xiongnu Shanyu family (Gaole Maodu, tomb of Mongolia), must be related with Tuyuhun ruling class.
It is very interesting that 100% of Xianbei paternal lineages discovered in past came from northern branch of C2, including Mushroom Mountain Xianbei (3), Chenwugou Xianbei (2) and Zhanheshhuo Xianbei (1). this means that Xianbei R1a1a1b2a type is a breakthrough.
3. Autosomal types of Tuyuhun people
Judging by faces of ancient Tuyukhun found this time in Dulan, Tuyukhun's people had two typical physiques. The examples in this article are DL5, DL6 and DL8 with highest data quality.
One of them is typical body type of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, such as DL5 and DL6, which are exactly same as those of ancient Nepalese and modern Sherpas. The ruling Qiang tribe undoubtedly has more ancient people of this type, reflecting that number of Qiang people under rule has always been greater than that of ruler Murong Xianbei.
The other is a typical North Asian steppe build, represented by DL8. This individual has a small proportion of Rusi_Afanasevo from Central Asia, but its main component is China_Upper_YR_IA from East Asia (Han people in upper Yellow River in Han Dynasty).
Based on simulation provided in appendix, this ancient DL8 can also be modeled as a mixed blood of 14.1% Mongolia_IA_Xianbei (Zhang and Shuo Xianbei) and 85.9% China_Upper_YR_IA (Han people from upper Yellow River in Han Province). dynasty), and this is DL8 ancient Tuyuhun, on paternal side it is R1a1a1b2a, and he must be from Xianbei side (the same family as Xiongnu father shanyu).
In ancient times, some Xiongnu were assimilated by Xianbi and began to call themselves Xianbi, which must also exist in real history.