In era of rapid development of modern medicine, more machines began to enter large hospitals, so modern people usually think that these machines are tools of Western medicine.
Especially in Europe, as early as 7,000 years ago, it was believed that craniotomy could be performed with craniotomy, so later surgery was considered ability of Western medicine to treat diseases, but Chinese medicine never used this method to treat diseases. .
So, in 5,000-year medical history of Chinese civilization, are all Chinese medicines using flowers, plants, and trees to boil medicinal materials in a pot to cure diseases?
Are there cases of Chinese medicine similar to craniotomy found in Europe? As we all know, is there any historical basis for craniotomy that Hua Tuo wanted to perform on Cao Cao during Three Kingdoms period? Are there any more records of craniotomy prior to end of Eastern Han Dynasty?Chinese medicine knife
Many traditional Chinese medicine theories in history are usually based on observation, research, and pathological judgments. The medicine is naturally traditional Chinese medicine, which prescribes right medicine.
The pharmacological theory that traditional Chinese medicine directly affects pain point is also constantly evolving through inheritance, but there are few records and methods of surgical treatment. This is reason why people think that Chinese medicine is just writing prescriptions. To alleviate injuries and illnesses of people.
But before Western medicine arrived in China, did ancients really not do surgery? Of course not. From sharp lancets, surgical forceps, clamps, and other cultural relics found in modern times, Chinese medicine performed operations.
In particular, Bianstone sickle discovered in Taixi village of Hebei province has a history of more than 3,000 years, indicating that Chinese medicine actually began using scalpel for operations three thousand years later . years, so it seems that surgery is not just an operation. This is a Western medicine patent.
Sima Qian, a historian of Western Han Dynasty, once described surgical ability of ancients in Historical Records“After Wu Hui gave birth to Lu Zhong, Lu Zhong’s wife gave birth to six children, all of them by caesarean section.”
This shows that during Western Han Dynasty, Chinese medical practitioners had already begun working with scalpels. Compared to one dead body and two lives caused by dystocia, caesarean section has pretty much solved problem of dystocia that has been born for thousands of years.
However, some scholars believe that caesarean section was already recorded during Xia Dynasty, and historians believe that some miraculous stories recorded in some articles found at that time believed that Dayu's son was also born by caesarean section.
So, in development of Chinese medicine in history of Chinese civilization, is there any evidence that is older than these operations? Are there any successful cases of these earlier surgeries? Can surgery without anesthesia put patients through a scalpel?Earliest craniotomy discovered by archaeologists
In the 1980s, archaeologists made a major discovery in Fujia Village, Guangzhao County, Dongying Province, where archaeologists discovered a Dawenkou cultural site.
This important discovery provides a very meaningful basis for studying history and culture of lower Yellow River. After discovery of Mount Fujiya, a large number of precious treasures such as jade stone were excavated, as many as hundreds of pieces. After continuous research by eleven archaeologists, an area of more than 700 square feet was discovered.
During eleven years of two rescue archaeological excavations, more than 500 tombs from Dawenkow culture period have been discovered. Tomb, archaeologists have carried out a total count of amount of carbon 14 in bones of ancient tomb.
Archaeologists were surprised that all these more than 500 ancient tombs belong to Middle and Late Neolithic 5000 years ago.
Archaeologists have combined found bone utensils to once again confirm that these thousand-year-old tombs really belong to Middle and Late Neolithic era.
During discovery of carbon 14, archaeologists made another more important discovery. Experts found a round slit three times two on head of owner of tomb in tomb No. 392.
The gap is located on right rear side of tomb owner's anti-aircraft cover, there are regular round holes around opening.
How did hole in tomb owner's head come about? Could it be that owner of tomb was killed with a blunt weapon on head while still alive? If he was killed, then why was he buried here with same requirements as other tomb owners?
Did ancients in this period already begin to explore and try trepanation of skull? Archaeological experts sought medical help with a series of questions while waiting for medics. After medics made a preliminary assessment at scene, they tentatively believed that head of owner of tomb had undergone a craniotomy.Surgery five thousand years ago
In order to better uncover truth about hole in head of owner of tomb in Fu Family Ruins, medical scientists used 3D modeling, high-resolution 3D cameras, 3D printing technology, and other multifunctional tools. overall technologies for restoring head of owner of tomb The original appearance of department.
After emergence of exhaustive data, archaeologists were shocked that head of owner of tomb did indeed undergo a craniotomy, and after operation, owner of tomb did not continue to die, and new bones continued to grow. grow in head. The carbon content ratio of 14 is different from old bone in his body.
A comprehensive analysis of data shows that owner of tomb survived normally after undergoing a craniotomy. This important discovery turned Chinese people's ideas about Chinese medicine upside down. It turns out that five thousand years ago, craniotomy surgery already appeared on Chinese soil.
Skull transfusion was not only very successful, but patients who underwent surgery survived normally. These new discoveries confirm direction of research into past and present of surgery.
The opening of Dawenkou site in Fujiazhuang has improved performance of Chinese surgery for thousands of years, and also proved to world that Chinese medicine not only knows how to perform operations, but also operates very successfully.
But how could ancients perform such a high-class operation without anesthesia? Since precedent already exists, why did Cao Cao reject Hua Tuo's offer to open his skull in Eastern Han Dynasty?
Medical scientists believe that this successful operation five thousand years ago was due to use of a sharp scalpel by operator. Among excavated cultural relics are many sharp bone tools, including needle suture knives that provide better equipment for operator. The sharper equipment, less blood loss during operation and greater chance of success.Summary
Although Chinese medicine began performing craniotomy 5,000 years ago, surgery is rarely used due to its inherent risks.
With rapid development of medical technology today, many diseases can be treated conservatively, so surgery will not be used.
Although Cao Cao did not follow Hua Tuo's advice to perform a craniotomy, Hua Tuo, who had already started using Mafeisan, still possessed technology and ability of a craniotomy to cure diseases.
The suspicious Cao Cao not only refused to accept offer of a craniotomy, but also felt that Hua Tuo wanted to kill him, so he arrested Hua Tuo, a generation of genius doctors, and beheaded him.