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Types of Y-chromosome of modern Turks in comparison with ancient populations

There is an article "Excavating Y Chromosome Haplotypes in Anatolia" published by Cengiz Cinnioglu of Stanford University in "Hum Genet" (Journal of Human Genetics), which has data on 523 male Y chromosomes from 89 regions of Turkey. , revealing paternal composition of modern Turks.

Types of Y-chromosome of modern Turks in comparison with ancient populations

1. Selection

Sampling was collected from 89 sampling points in 9 major regions, a total of 523 male Y-chromosome data were obtained, all of whom were Turks. The sampling location is as follows:

Types of Y-chromosome of modern Turks in comparison with ancient populations

2. Y chromosome data

According to data in article, following data of Y-chromosome of Turks, with J2 (128), G (107), R1b (76), E (55), J1 (47), R1a ( 36) with more detailed information see table below:

Types of Y-chromosome of modern Turks in comparison with ancient populations

Of these types, J2, G, J1, E and other Middle Eastern types dominate.

O, common in East Asia, occurs only in Zone 3 (near Black Sea in north) with 1 case, which is 1 in 500.

In East Asia, there are 5 cases of type C2, which is almost 1%, but 3 of them appear in 9th region (capital Istanbul), C2 probably has a certain influence on political history of Turks, and Type C2 in Turkey is very rarely found in surrounding areas. This is a typical type of nomads in Asian pastures. It also had a high proportion of distribution among ancient Turks. (The other two are type C*, which should be C1a2, which is European aboriginal type in Neolithic)

Type N in East Asia has 20 individuals, accounting for 3.8%, which is an important type. This type is very rare in adjacent areas of Turkey and reflects features of Turkey's eastern origin.

There are 10 Q-types in north of East Asia, which is 1.9% of population. This Q-type is a common type of ancient Huns and Turks, and it is also only remaining part of eastern elements in modern Turkey.

3. Old East Turkic and West Turkic Y-chromosome data

(1) "137 ancient human genomes from Eurasian steppes"Data in article include following four populations

Turk (2): O1b-F838-Y155291 (1), R1a (1)

Age of Non-Turkic Empire (1): R1a (1)

Ge Luolu Karluk (1): J2a-KMS86 (1)

Kipchak (1): C2n-F11987 (1) (Note: C2n is northern branch of C2 and C2s is southern branch of C2)

(2) "A dynamic 6000-year genetic history of Eurasia"Ancient Eastern Turkic and Uyghur (Uighur) data available

Eastern Turk (7): C2n-F1756 (2), J2a -M410 (2), J1a -CTS5368 (1), N1a2-L666 (1), R1a-Z93 (1)

Uyghur (6): R1b-CTS1078 (3), C2s-M407 (1), Q1a-F1096 (1), R1b-M269 (1)

(3) "Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity in Khazar burials from southern Russia" contains Khazar-Turkic data

Khazar (9): R1a (3), C2n-F1756 (2), G (1), N1a (1), Q1 (1), R1b (1)

According to summary of these data, among 27 individuals of ancient Eastern Turks, Western Turks and related populations, there was a high proportion of Eastern types, such as C2 (6), N1 (2) and Q. (2).

3. Genetic data of ancient Ottoman Turks

In article "The first shepherds and influence of steppe expansions of early Bronze Age on Asia" there are 2 data from early period of ancient Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Empire), one of nobles is a woman (MA2195 specimen, time 1400-1500 AD) .), so there is no Y data, but it is very interesting that this individual has a very high status, and its maternal line is of D4j type, which is a typical East Asian grassland type. Another individual is also a high-grade burial, and maternal line is K1 (K1b2).

Types of Y-chromosome of modern Turks in comparison with ancient populations

Some clues indicate that in history of Turkic-speaking peoples, people of East Asian type often had a higher political status. In another article "The ethno-cultural code of military groups of Ulus Juchi based on materials from archeology of Karasuyr burial ground, Ulytau, Central Kazakhstan" male line of Golden Horde nobles is C2n-Y4633 (above and below Y4541), and female line is D4m2 This is an East Asian type, and nobleman's servant is Caucasian , and his father's line is R1a. Among modern Turks, 60% of C2 is concentrated in metropolitan area, and several families whose paternal line is C2 are clearly more involved in politics of Ottoman Empire.

From point of view of development of autosomes in Turkish peninsula, in lower right corner of figure below is region of Anatolia, N (Neolithic), CA (Calcolithic), EBA (Early Bronze Age), MLBA. (Middle and Late Bronze Age), none of them have East Asian elements, but in IA (Iron Age) few Northeast Asian elements appeared, and as time went on, East Asian elements continued to increase, and finally, Ottoman Turkish noblewomen have a high proportion East Asian elements.

Types of Y-chromosome of modern Turks in comparison with ancient populations

Five, analysis

Based on these data, ancient Turks, Ge Luolu, Uyghurs, Kinchas and Khazars, their fathers have a strong East Asian pastoral component, and typical East Asian types such as C, N, Q and O average 40.7% The early (1400-1500 AD) Ottoman Turkish nobility also had strong East Asian features.

Modern Turks, East Asian elements are significantly weakened, and East Asian elements such as C, N, Q and O are 7-8%, and this number is not large. But on other hand, there are almost no such East Asian types in other ethnic groups around Turkey, and Turkey has paternal ties with the ancient East.

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