"The origin and relationship of Shakya, Bajracharya and Udaya groups of Newar population of Kathmandu valley: a new approach using mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosomal and autosomal genetic markers" The origin and relationship of Jirajaya and Udaya tribes, through method of analysis of mitochondrial DNA, Y- Chromosomes and Autosomes", article presents information about DNA in the journal Newari.
1. Object of study
The subject of this article is Newars, second largest tribal group in Nepal. Specifically including Shakya tribe (N=19), Bhajirajaya tribe (N=20) and Udaya tribe (N=59) among Newars.
Among them, Shakya tribe Shakya is tribe to which Buddha Shakyamuni belongs (Sakyamuni means a sage from Shakyamuni tribe). Later, country founded by Shakyamuni tribe was attacked by foreign races; in Buddhist scriptures belonged to tribe of King Ajay (du). This king was first king to sponsor a Buddha to hold a Dharma meeting. Later he founded a powerful dynasty. At that time it was one of largest countries in North India, and it was also leader among modern Newars. One of largest branches, Bhajirajaya tribe is also an important branch of Newars.
These three tribes do not currently believe in Buddhism. All of them are Hindu groups. Their language belongs to the Indo-European language family (caste).
2. Information about paternal Y chromosome
The Shakya family has 19 paternal individuals, including J2a-M410 (7), R2-M124 (5), O2-M117 (4), F-M89 (1), P-M45 (1), R1a. -M17 (1). Judging by proportion, J2a-M410 is 36.8%, which has a founder effect and is presumably of Shakyamuni royal family type (Sakyamuni belongs to Shakyamuni royal family).
Among other two clans, Bajracharya and Udaya, largest paternal type is O2-M177, which accounts for 50.0% and 42.4% respectively, while D1-M15 also accounts for 10.0%% and 18.6%, these two tribes have a very deep Sino-Tibetan paternal background (both > 60%), but O2 and D1 are relatively low in Shakya Shakya (respectively 21.1% and 0), which is three among three tribes, one with least Sino-Tibetan components is also one with most Central Asian components.
Third, mother components
The main matrilines of three tribes are South Asian subtypes M, a small number of East Asian components such as A, D and G, and a small number of West Eurasian types such as T and U.
4. Autosomal analysis
The article compares MYBPC3, LCT, EGLN, EPHX, SLC24A and EDAR across several autosomal traits. Among these genes, SLC24A is associated with skin color, LCT gene is associated with lactic acid tolerance, EDAR gene is associated with straight hair. and spatulate incisors are related, and EGLN gene is associated with plateau fitness.
Taking SLC24A gene as an example, skin color of these three tribes is average (but clearly darker than that of Han Chinese). From point of view of EDAR gene, straight and curly hair in these three tribes is mainly explained for half, half of people have body odor, and other half do not have body odor. According to EGLN gene, most people do not have height adjustment. Roughly speaking, appearance of Shakyamuni himself should be similar to these groups of people.
At end of article, South Asia is considered to be largest contributor to maternal genetic component, while East Asia is main contributor to paternal lines. The genetic component from Central Asia and Western Eurasia was significantly present (South Asian populations contributed most matrilineal components, East Asian populations contributed most paternal components, while Central Asian and Western Eurasian genetic components were significantly prominent).
Regarding source of Newar people, article states that vital results of this study showed that ethnicity of Newars was formed by accumulation of different populations within same ethnic group with a common language, culture, etc. The conclusion of study is that Newari are made up of many different populations with different genetic groups, but with roughly same language and culture.
Among three tribes, Shakya tribe has most Central Asian elements and is a typical tribe consisting of descendants of Central Asian invaders. They controlled indigenous tribes, originally Sino-Tibetan, and became rulers. In fact, it is also a combination of Sino-Tibetan patriarchy and local Indian matriarchy. Shakya is both Saka and Scythian in Indian language. However, DNA data of ancient Scythians show that they have most R1a type, and largest paternal type in Sakya tribe J2a-M410, which may be due to growth of population of royal family.
Another point that cannot be ignored is that Shakya tribe where Buddha lived and two other tribes have extremely strong Sino-Tibetan patriarchal elements, especially two tribes other than Shakya tribe. ingredients come from Sino-Tibetan O2-M117 and D1-M15, and over 20% of A, D, G2, Z and other ingredients in maternal line also have East Asian characteristics, showing ancient Shakyamuni and other tribes, with exception of native Indians. In addition to appearance, there should be strong East Asian features.