In July 2021, article "A Genomic View of Differentiated Population Admixture Structure and Demographic History of Northeast Asians" fully analyzed populations in Northeast Asia and provided perspectives on their development and evolution.
The article suggests that population of this area is a product of development of 5 ancient East Asian populations in antiquity (6 including Jōmon of Japan).
but also identified at least five Neolithic East Asian lineages (inland/coastal lines of south/northern East Asia, respectively associated with Liangdao/Qihe in Fujian, Longlin in Guangxi, Bianbian and Yumin in Yellow River Basin (YRB), and Choh Opani ). in Tibet, as well as ancient Northeast Asian lineages associated with Neolithic DevilsGate and Boisman in MP and ARB), but also identified at least five Neolithic East Asian systems of origin (Inland/Coastal Lines, Southeast Asian/Northeast Asian Lineages). Asia, including ① Fujian Liandao and South China Qihe Coast, ② Guangxi Longlin, ③ Bianbian Mountain and Yumin (YRB) in Yellow River Basin, ④ Chokhopani in Tibet, ⑤ MP Ancient Mongolian Plateau / Heilongjiang Ancient ARB (Based on Guimendong and Persian Mann) as a representative) .
The Neolithic population of Yellow River Basin (YRB population) had greatest impact on modern population of East Asia, followed by coastal Neolithic population of South China, followed by Neolithic population of Heilongjiang River Basin, Chokhopani population in Tibet was less affected, and Longlin population in Guangxi has practically disappeared.
Today, bulk of population of Northeast Asia, bulk of Han Chinese, Japanese, Korean and other populations, comes from Neolithic population of Yellow River basin (YRB population), which is largest component.
The MP/YRB population (Old Mongol Plateau/Heilongjiang Neolithic population) is main ancestral source of modern Altaic language family, but western part of Turkic language family was influenced by Western Eurasians. More unexpectedly, modern main lineage of Mongolian people in China is YRB group (ancient people in Yellow River basin), and not MP (ancient people in Mongolian highlands). According to 23 Mofang, Mongolian people in modern 51.3% and 24.5% for C. Interestingly, article shows that in present-day Mongolia O is 24.8% and C is 54.3%, and proportions of two are almost exactly same. opposite.
We have identified important substructures within Altaic-speaking populations with a primary common ancestry associated with Neolithic North East Asians: Western Turkic peoples were of more Western Eurasian origin; Northern Mongols in Siberia and Eastern Tungus peoples in Amur River Basin (ARB). ) had a dominant Neolithic Mongolian Plateau (MP) or ARB ancestors; southern Mongols in China had obvious genetic influence from Neolithic agriculturalists of Yellow River Basin (YRB). In addition, we have found a differentiated history of admixture between Western and Eastern Mongols and geographically close northeastern Hans:East Asians: Western Turks were of more Western Eurasian origin; Mongols in Siberia in north and in Amur Valley (ARB) in east. Tungus on Neolithic Mongolian Plateau (MP) or ARB; Mongolian farmers in southern China were apparently under genetic influence of Neolithic farmers of Yellow River Basin (YRB).
There is a lot of data, and I believe that looking at development of ancient East Asian populations, all modern populations are product of mixing several ancient populations, and there are huge differences between different ethnic groups in ancient times. The difference between them is very small. Let me show you some comparisons:
1. There are also obvious differences between ancient Neolithic population of Henan and other Yellow River basins and modern Han population. However, due to large agricultural population and lesser migration, this difference is not particularly noticeable, but definitely not a permanent crowd.
Second, a comparison of chromosomes of early Xiongnu, late Xiongnu, Turks, Uyghurs, Khitan and Mongols shows that main genetic components of population changed several times over hundreds of years, only ancient Turks and Uyghurs are relatively close, and every other change is very abrupt .
3. Comparison of autosomes between Mongols (LateMed_Mongol) in 13th and 15th centuries, modern Mongols, and modern Chinese Mongols (chifeng, tongliao) reveals major changes in ancient and modern populations.
4. Comparison between Chinese Mongols and Han Chinese in present-day Hulunbair, Shenyang, Baotou, and Shandong. With exception of Hulunbuir, do you see obvious differences in other three places if you don't look at labels?