As of September 2021, many newspapers have published data on ancient DNA of golden family of Genghis Khan, which gives many clues.
1. DNA data of Ghazan Khan, sixth grandson of Genghis Khan O2a2b1a1a1a2a-Y8389
Ghazan Khan is sixth generation grandson of Genghis Khan and fourth generation grandson of Hulagu, founder of Ilkhanate.
The baby in her arms is Ghazan Khan, and one who holds him is Alukhun Khan
In 2020, Iranian researchers confirmed that ghazan khan is O2-M175 for Mongol khans (translation: khan) and shahs (translation: sand, Iranian king's name), which is expected to be published in a white paper 2022 of year.
According to later news (not publicly confirmed), Ghazan Khan's Y chromosome subdivision type is O2a2b1a1a1a2a-Y8389, if news is correct, then TMRCA O2a2b1a1a1a2a-Y8389 (time of last common ancestor) is 6600 years, according to 23 Rubik's Cube Data ( total 1521 Mongols) make up 0.60% of Mongolian population in present-day China, which is not a high proportion, and there is no apparent modern expansion.
According to Yfull, this branch is currently mostly distributed among Han people in East Asia, Japan and Korea, including Henan (2), Heilongjiang (1), Chongqing (1), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1) and Tokyo, Japan (1), South Korea (1).
Some doubt origin of Ghazan Khan. It is recorded in Schlatter's Historical Collection that Ghazan Khan's mother (Kurita kultak) had a Han servant named (Ishin Ishinq, or physician) who was Ghazan Khan's grandfather (Kitaer Bijachi kihtar bitikji) chosen for his daughter from Han Chinese slaves of Duoerbian. tribe (the Nenjiang River Basin in China) and accompanied him all time he came from China. As a rule, slaves are of low status and not valued by others, but specifically "Historical Collection". . To make matters worse, Ghazan Khan's father (Arukhun) took Ghazan Khan away when he was 13, so he was also prematurely suspected of paternity.
Khan's wife (Ishinka) (Mokhalidjin) later became Ghazan Khan's nurse, Ghazan Khan's childhood teacher Bahei Suya Luhei was also a Han, and their relationship with Ghazan Khan was very close but normal.
Currently, Ghazan Khan is only confirmed DNA member of ancient golden family belonging to O2-M175, but likelihood that Genghis Khan belongs to this type is very low.
2. High-ranking nobles of Golden Horde DA28
In article "137 ancient human genomes from all over Eurasian steppes", published on "Nature" in 2018, there is an ancient person with DA28, his Y chromosome is C2-Y4633, his maternal line is D4m2, and his address is located in Kazakhstan Karasuyr Stana, paternal type of this ancient species is downstream from "Genghis Khan Star Cluster" (C*-STAR, or written as C2-F3796), and F3796 is currently considered largest type candidate of Genghis Khan family (according to Rubik's Cube, modern China accounts for 7.93% of Mongolian nationality, which is largest branch of modern Mongolian nationality).
According to another article "The Ethno-Cultural Code of Military Detachments of Ulus Jochi Based on Archaeological Materials of Karasuyr Burial Ground, Ulytau, Central Kazakhstan", this grave dates back to 1270-1320 AD. (about 750-700 years ago Front), tomb has a Tibetan Buddhism (translation: Lamaism) religious culture with elements of shamanism (translation: shamanism). Therefore, this ancient man from D28 of Golden Horde became first discovered ancient man of "Genghis Khan Star Cluster" lineage, and this ancient man was precisely Mongolian noble man from Golden Horde.
The source text describes this ancient man as follows:
We also find presence of a person of Western Eurasian origin, buried with members of Golden Horde army of Jochi Khan from Ulytau mountains, buried together in Ulytau mountains.)
This may indicate assimilation of certain groups into medieval Golden Horde, but this person can also represent a slave or servant of Western Eurasian origin serving members of Golden Horde. Composed of different cultural groups, but it is also possible that this person of Western Eurasian origin was simply a slave or servant serving members of Golden Family.)
This ancient man is of prominent status and is likely a distant branch of Jin family. Its paternal type C-Y4633 is a descendant of C-Y4580, while C-Y4580 was produced 1450 years ago and is believed to be of Botanchar type.
This is a very important tip. The discovery of a distant branch of Golden Horde family is very important for determining type of Genghis Khan's family.
3. Individuals of SHG003 from 13th to 15th centuries in Mongolian steppe
In article "Dynamic 6,000-Year Genetic History of Eastern Steppe of Eurasia" published by cell in March 2020, individual SHG003 was an ancient human from period of Mongol Empire. The specific period of life of this ancient man is not indicated. given in original text. The time is only within Mongol Empire in 13th-15th centuries, and place of find is Sharga Uul in Sukhe Bator (translation: Sukhe Bator Province) in Mongolia.
SHG003 Paleo is C2-ZQ394, also downstream of Genghis Khan Star Cluster (C*-STAR-F3796), another Golden family paleo discovered.
C2-ZQ394 is a patrilineal type dating back 1100 years ago. The same paternal line was also found in Nizhny Novgorod (1), Tatar Republic (1), Ukraine (1), Xinjiang (1), Inner Mongolia. Mongolian (1), Shandong (1), such a distribution within 1100 years can only be caused by Mongol Empire. The ancient SHG003 must also be a distant branch of golden family.
4. An early specimen of KLK002 from Kaialik site
According to article "Ancient genomic time section from Central Asian steppe reveals history of the Scythians", an early specimen of KLK002 950 AD was found in Kazakhstan. (1070 years ago) Type C2-F1918 instance, upstream of cluster C2-3796.
The ruins of Kaialik date from 8th to 13th centuries AD and were once capital of Turkic tribe Ge Luolu. The discovery of this ancient man strengthened connection between Golden Family of Genghis Khan and older tribes. .
5. The only ancient man on Mount Kent, land of Kiyan ancestors
In DUU002, in March 2020 article "Dynamic 6000-Year Genetic History of Eastern Steppe of Eurasia", this tomb has a round grave, contains an iron stirrup (translation: round tomb, contains an iron stirrup), his paternal line is R1a1a1-Page7.
The burial place of this ancient man is Duulga-Uul cemetery in Khentii (translation: Kent Province), Mongolia. This ancient man is currently only ancient DNA in ancestral land of Kiyan (Khentii Kent province). The individual cited in article belongs to period from 1214 to 1270 AD, judging by age, Mongol tribes were dispersed during this period and probably migrated from other places. The ancients were not necessarily Kiyan tribe.
Some low-quality cool articles on internet claim that ancient beggar tribe was dominated by O2, and some people even said that Genghis Khan's Han slaves were O2, therefore descendants of O2. This is just slander against historical figures.
The ancestral land of ancient Nilun Mongolia (Kiyan, Taichivu, Zhuerqi, Huanghuotan) is Khentii aimag (Kent province), and only one ancient man is mentioned in article
In era before Genghis Khan, Kiyan tribe still existed in Tuva aimag (Central Province), and there were 3 male elders in this province
In era before Genghis Khan, Kiyan tribe still existed in Dornod Aimag (Eastern Province), and there were 6 ancient men
There is another area, namely Sukhbaatar aimag (Sukhbaatar province), this area does not belong to traditional begging zone, there are 4 C and 3 O, online class text method is to identify this place as Yan Zudi pleads, so ratio of O is almost same as that of C.
Actually, we cannot think that people in these areas come from Mongol headquarters of Qiyan, because these ancient people lived from 13th to 15th centuries, from late Yuan Dynasty to early Ming Dynasty. come from different tribes, and there may even be non-Mongols Semu and Han.
5. Golden Family Cemetery of Mongolian Yuan Dynasty R1b
Molecular genealogy of family of Mongolian queen and her possible relationship with Genghis Khan, September 2016, Mount Tavan Tolgoi, Sukhbaatar aimag (Sukhbaatar province), Mongolia, in which tombs are three ancient people who are believed to were members of Golden family members (MN0104, MN0125 and MN0126).
For three people from data Y
MN0104 and MN0126, belonging to high-ranking nobles, have R1b (these two people are most likely grandsons of Genghis Khan, prince of Wangu tribe, so father's line is different from golden family, which will be discussed later)
5 graves belong to members of Golden family who were contemporaries of Genghis Khan (translation: 5 tombs from same era as Genghis Khan)
MN0104 was discovered with a piece of jewelry called "Jin" in Mongolia, consisting of a large pearl set on a gold base in shape of a flower, consisting of large pearls set on a gold base in shape of a flower).
MN0126 and MN0127 each wore only one earring found under their skull, indicating their higher social status (high social status)
MN0376 was also thought to belong to a member of general public
The article ends with two options:
①The noblewoman (MN0124) is Alakai Beki (daughter of Genghis Khan), and MN0104 and MN0126 are his sons Ongud (prince of Vangu tribe).
②The female nobleman (MN0124) is Sorghaghtani, she is Mongke (Mongke) and Kublai (Kublai Khan).
These two assumptions, according to the article, also have flaws and no conclusions can be drawn.
6. The maximum possible family of Genghis Khan
It is currently still a star cluster subtype (C2-F3796), C2-Y4541, about 950 years ago, and will be analyzed more thoroughly in a later article.