1. DNA Data from Ancient Shang Dynasty Civilians
In 2020, Nature published an article "Ancient genomes from northern China suggesting a link between lifestyle change and human migration" with Ning Chao as first author, which has two very important data on ancient DNA. from ruins of village of Nie in Jiaozuo, belonging to same family as ruins of Yin.
According to original introduction, Jiaozuonicun site was discovered in 2014. Rescue excavations were carried out by Jiaozuo Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology, and after 2 months, a total of 48 graves and 19 ash pits were discovered. Based on excavated relics, archaeologists confirmed that site belonged to Shang culture. The Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology conducted rescue excavations. After 2 months of excavation, a total of 48 tombs and 19 ash pits were discovered. On basis of excavated cultural relics, archaeologists confirmed that monument belonged to “Shan culture”. Three ancient humans were tested and analyzed, two of which provided enough data for genome research, and one was analyzed using isotope dating.)
The site of Nie Village in Jiaozuo is a late Shang Dynasty tomb. According to analysis of measurement data of human bones, "the ethnic characteristics of skull are most similar to middle and small tombs of Yinxu ② Ancient Central Plains Type Group." In terms of funerary items and funerary items, common people and small and medium nobles clearly do not differ from Yin Ruins, and physique and culture of inhabitants are exactly same as those of Yin Shang commoners.
Second, the paternal and maternal situation
The Nie Village studies presented in "Ancient Genomes from Northern China Show Link Between Livelihood Change and Human Migration" included a total of three people, two of whom were successful.
The Y chromosome of JXNTM2 individual is O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b, and maternal mitochondrial DNA is A5b1b.
JXNTM23 is a female and maternal line is C4a1a2.
Both are typical patrilineal and matrilineal lines of modern Han people. From this point of view, common people of late Shan nationality, represented by Yin ruins, do not have obvious differences from modern Han nationality. The branch represented by O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b is still one of main branches of Han nationality. There is an inheritance relationship with modern people.
3. Autosomal disease
In terms of autosome, it is similar to ancients from Longshan period to Shang and Zhou dynasties. The DNA of common people of merchants in village of Nie in Jiaozo still has a certain difference from modern Han. This is lower, and composition of modern Han people in South China is higher, which associated with millennial North-South gene exchange, and genes of North China and South China are moving closer.
The figure below shows that between 7,000 and 4,000 years ago, rice (rice) growing population continued to move north into Northern China, while millet (millet) growing population continued to move south. Southern China, differences in DNA among Chinese are getting smaller and smaller.
In terms of PCA analysis of main components, Shang Dynasty (YR_LIBA) civilians in Nie Village in Jiaozuo are relatively close to modern Han people (Han) and generally fall within range of modern Han people. of these people, there is no obvious difference with some people in modern Han Chinese.
In addition to relatively close distance of Han people, Shang Dynasty (YR_LIBA) people in Nie Village in Jiaozuo were further away from Naxi (NASI) and Yi (Yi) people and even further away from Xibo (XIBO), Japanese and Tibetans.
Currently, all Shang Dynasty royal tombs were stolen before founding of People's Republic.DNA data of Shang Dynasty nobles.