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Y-chromosome, skin, hair and eye color of ancient people of Bronze and Iron Ages in Xinjiang

March 31, 2022 Vikas Kumar and Wang Wenjun published "Bronze Age and Iron Age Population Movement underpins Xinjiang's Population History", "Bronze Age and Iron Age Population Movement underpins Xinjiang's Population History" in Science and "The science". The Foundation of History”, which contains genetic data of 201 ancient people from 39 archaeological sites from Bronze Age to historical period. This is article with largest number of specimens of ancient people in China to date.

1. Sample Information

The samples are taken from 39 sites, 201 ancient samples, and sampling time is from 5043 to 515 years. These sites are divided into Bronze Age (about 5000-3000 years ago) and Iron Age (3000 years ago -2000) and historical period (within 2000 years ago).

According to address information, it is divided into four parts: northern, southern, eastern and western (the central part is considered to be single, which is not suitable for human habitation, because central part is Takla Makan desert).

Note: This article was officially published in form of an RESEARCH. Previously in form of a RESEARCH PAPER, there were 239 samples from 41 archaeological sites in mitogenomes of Ancient Xinjiang showing intense admixture with high genetic diversity with Wang Wenjun as first author. Samples with low coverage and contamination were removed.

Update: Upon request, part of this article is Wang Wenjun's Ph.D. thesis at Northwestern University "237 Mitochondrial Whole Genome Cases Reveal Evolutionary History of Xinjiang's Ancient Populations 5000-500 Years Ago", which can be referenced.

Second, autosomes

The Bronze Age in Xinjiang was actually a mixture of local indigenous people and bronze people from Central and Western Asia. During this period, BMAC (Oasis Agriculture of Western Asia), Chemurchek culture, Chemurchek and Steppe_EMA moved to Xinjiang. and Xinjiang ANE Aboriginals were mixed to form earliest Bronze Age population in Xinjiang, which was rather western. However, composition of late shaman woman, which is actually a mixture of East and North Asia, also has an influence in Xinjiang, especially in northern region of Xinjiang.

The population of Iron Age, among them in composition inherited from population of Bronze Age, is about two-thirds, and a new third of population is migration of surrounding populations, especially migration of East Asian population. related composition, composition of Neolithic population of Yellow River basin YR_MN increased rapidly.

In historical period, characteristics of Iron Age population were largely preserved, but North Asian composition of individuals was relatively high.

Thus, article considers that population of Bronze Age and Iron Age formed basis of modern population of Xinjiang.

Three, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA

In terms of paternity, 201 people have a total of 125 males. Historically, R is largest type, accounting for 54.4%, followed by Q, which accounts for 19.2%, third - J, accounting for 6.4%, and N are related to O as fourth and fifth largest types, accounting for 5.6%, sixth largest type is C, accounting for 4.0%, other types include E , G, L, I, etc., and no type D was found.

In terms of mtDNA, among 201 individuals, U is largest type, accounting for 20.4%, H is second largest type, accounting for 15.9%, and D, C, and T also account for more than 10 %. , which is respectively 14.4%, 13.9%, 10.0%, in general, Western types occupy majority along matriarchal line.

A bright spot is data of Khotan, where ancient Kingdom of Khotan (Yuchi family), Iron Age, place was 2992-2439 years ago (before Han Dynasty), neither O type nor East Asian type; 1866-1711 During period (roughly equivalent to period of Three Kingdoms and Jin Dynasty), type O accounted for 33.3%, in 1727-1575 (Northern and Southern Dynasties period), share of local O was up to 57.1%, which was largest type. It later became one of four cities of Anxi in Tang Dynasty. Large population of Central Plains.

Historical records exist of arrival of Khotanese who are close to people of Central Plains. The Northern History Khotanese Biography states: “From west of Gaochang, people from other countries have deep eyes and high noses. But this country is not very ugly. , very similar to Huaxia. What is more interesting is that maternal lines of these ancient O-types in Khotan are all Western types such as UHT.

Another place is Qitai County in northern Xinjiang. The name of Qitai County comes from Mongolian "Qitai Praha", which means river (Prague) of Han people (Qitai). Three ancient peoples of Han Dynasty have been discovered. there is only a man here whose paternal line is O 2. Given that this is a Han Dynasty army garrison in Cheshi State, this man may be a Han army and not a local.

3. Appearance

This article rarely analyzes color of hair and eyes of local residents, which is rarely found in works of Russian authors. Predicted by HiriSplex software.

Of 38 faces analyzed, about 35 had brown eyes, 1 had blue eyes, 1 had both blue and brown eyes, and 1 had 3/4 brown eyes, with a 1/4 probability of having blue eyes.

Among 44 people analyzed, 0 had red hair, about 6 had yellow hair, 17 had brown hair, and about 21 had black hair.

Among 64 people analyzed, 0 were very light-skinned, 5 were light-skinned, 35 were medium-skinned, 13 were dark-skinned, and 11 were very dark-skinned. For light skin one may refer to inhabitants of Ukraine and elsewhere, for medium skin one may refer to majority of Hans, for darker skin one may refer to inhabitants of North India, and for very dark skin one may refer to inhabitants of North India. belong to inhabitants of South India.

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