In October 2019, European Journal of Human Genetics published "High-Resolution Inference on Genetic Relationships Among Jewish Populations", which analyzed genotypes of modern Jews using Qualcomm data. test results are impressive.
One, four branches
In article, an autosomal analysis of 429 people from 29 Jewish populations was carried out. The results of analysis concluded that majority of Jewish samples fall into four main clusters that largely represent four culturally defined groups, namely Ashkenazi, Mizrahi, North African, and Sephardic subdivisions. Jewish population. (The vast majority of Jewish samples can be divided into four categories, defined according to four cultures, namely Ashkenazi branch of Jewish people, Mizrahi branch, North African branch and Sefadi branch)
Four branches are clearly visible on PCA 29 Hebrew branches chart.
These four branches are very different. According to division of article, these groups represent generally different geographical roots: Central and Eastern Europe for Ashkenazi group, Middle East, Caucasus and Central Asia for Mizrachi group, North Africa for North African group, and Mediterranean regions inhabited by descendants of Jewish population expelled from Iberia in late 1400s for Sephardi group (these groups often represent origin of different classes of geographic regions: Ashkenazi Jews, Middle East, Caucasus, and Middle East is Mizrahi branch, North African region is North African branch; Mediterranean region is inhabited, Sephardi branch expelled from Iberia (Spain) in 1400th century.)
This article presents an autosomal analysis of Jews from around world and their comparison with non-Jewish residents around world. Judging from PCA graph, genetic distances of 29 branches of Jews are not close to each other. Each branch is closer to local population than to other Jewish groups.
The article used admixture software to map their autosomal composition. You can see that differences between various Jewish branches are very obvious and not close.
Each branch does not mean they are exactly same, e.g. same branch of Mizrahi, Iraqi Jews, Iranian Jews, Kurdish Jews, Georgian Jews, Azerbaijani Jews, Uzbek Jews, other than comparing Kurdish Jews and Iraqi Jews. proximity, other branches are also very different from each other.
3. Cluster Diagram
This article uses a clustering diagram to illustrate. This clustering diagram is based on autosomal analysis. It is very intuitive that there are different clusters of Jews of each branch.
Fourthly, analyze reasons
According to ancient DNA, regions where ancient Jews lived (Egypt and Levant) are genetically consistent with ancient Near Eastern population. The genetic exchange of inhabitants actually continued consistently. After more than 1,000 years of genetic exchange, Jews in different places became more and more like locals, and gap between them became wider and wider.