June 27, 2022, "Uniparental Genetic Analysis Reveals Multiethnic Origin of Dunhuang Foyemiaowang (220-907 CE) Population with Typical Han Chinese Archaeological Culture" Ethnicity), article presents a total of 34 samples and analyzes patrilineal and matrilineal conditions of site of Foyemyaowan in Dunhuang from 220 to 907 AD.
1. Example situation
A total of 34 samples were analyzed, including 485 paternal SNPs. In terms of depth of analysis, it should be very detailed.
The cultural background reflected in ruins is typical of Han culture of ancient China, resulting from fusion of Chinese and Western cultures. However, article concludes that, based on DNA analysis, it is highly likely that population of Sixteen Kingdoms period and local population of Dunhuang, while culturally typical of ancient Han culture, are not necessarily all Han, and intermarriage between Han people is widespread. and hu people. At other times, population may still be Han-dominated.
Second, paternal and matrilineal conditions
The article expresses opinion that from point of view of patriarchy, types related to Tibeto-Burmans and Hans include (Oa-M117, 25%; Ob-F46, 18.75%), and Altaians and Northern Eurasians (N - F1206, 18.75%), a small number of East Asian and South East Asian types (O1b1a2-Page59, 6.25%; O1b1a1-PK4, 3.13%). However, actual division of article is relatively rough, among them, it is mainly determined that northern part is 12.51% N1a1a1a1a-F2584 and so on. It is very interesting that O1a-M119-F492 and O2a-0000261-F11 branches are absent in these populations.
According to temporal analysis, it can be clearly divided into two types of samples:
17 paternal persons during Sixteen Kingdoms period: O accounted for 47.1%, N accounted for 29.4%, C accounted for 11.8%, and Q accounted for 11.8%, which very different from modern nationality of Han and Qinghai. and Sichuan. Some Tibeto-Burmese-speaking populations elsewhere are relatively close.
Other dynasties (Cao Wei, Western Jin, Sui, Tang) 11 people, O accounted for 90.1% (of which O2 accounted for 81.8%), N-F710 accounted for 9.9% (probably Zhou N-F710-F1998, this type was also found in ruins of Heishuigo), all of which are common types of typical Han people.
Among them, there is a relatively important gene, which is gene of Dunhuang Zhang family. In text, he is owner of tomb number VIM7 in Sui Dynasty. The epitaph shows that this person is "General Yueqi Ningshuo School, Wei Longle Mansion Sima Zhang Yi" is grandson of Zhang An, Northern Wei Dynasty Chariot General Zhang An. Its gene is O2a2a-M188, which is more common in South China. The Zhang family in Dunhuang produced such famous historical figures as Zhang An and Zhang Yichao.
In terms of maternity, common types in northern East Asia are (A, -4.17%, CZ, -16.67%, D-20.83%, G, -4.17%, M9- 4.17%), and common types in southern East Asia are (B, -12.51%; F-20.83%) and a small number of West Eurasian types (H-4.17%; J-4.17 %). Among Han population and those with a Han cultural background, West Eurasian matriarchal lineage is found to be very small, reflecting population exchange in Dunhuang area.
3. Comparison of ancient populations
Through analysis of PCA in article, it was found that population of Sixteen Kingdoms period was very unusual. The population of site of Foyemyaowan in Dunhuang during Sixteen Kingdoms period, its main patrilineal component falls into category of Tibeto-Burmese population, which is distinct from modern northern Han and southern Han populations.
With exception of Sixteen Kingdoms period (Cao Wei, Western Jin, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty), main paternal composition is very close to modern Northern Han and Southern Han.
According to PCA analysis of matriarchal lineage during Sixteen Kingdoms period, matrilineal lineage at Foye Miaowang site in Dunhuang was very close to current population of Inner Mongolia and differed significantly from modern northern Han and southern Han populations. ., which is very rare among Han people.
The article presents an analysis of matrilineal genes of some ancient monuments. From comparison, it can be seen that matrilineal lineage of ancient city of Dunhuang Foyemiowang is similar to that of typical Han districts such as Yinxu, Shandong Liujiazhai, and Shanxi Hengbei, and is similar to ancient Mo. There are obvious differences among population in northwest of moat. But what is characteristic is that it has a certain Late_Xiongnu_TUR matriarchy of late Xiongnu section of Tamir River.
Judging by matrilineal comparison of modern humans, most of matrilineal mtDNA of Foyemaowan population has a corresponding relationship between modern Han and modern Tibeto-Burmese populations, even H7b (West Eurasian maternal lineage) existing in ancient Foyemaowan population. of population), there are still two closest relatives in modern Northern Han, which indicates that in ancient times a small branch of Western Eurasian women integrated into Northern Han.
Fourthly, conclusion of article
Finally, conclusion of article is that from Dunhuang settlement Foye Miaowang 220-907. AD, from Cao Wei period of Three Kingdoms period, Western Jin Dynasty, Sixteen Kingdoms period, Sui Dynasty, and Tang Dynasty period, article considers that population of Dunhuang experienced turmoil during Sixteen Kingdoms period. The article points out that this is especially true during periods of national division and rapid inter-ethnic exchange, such as Sixteen Kingdoms of China (304–439 CE) and Northern and Southern Dynasties (420–589 CE). period of Sixteen Kingdoms and Northern and Southern Dynasties is such a typical example.)
During Sixteen Kingdoms period, local population at site of Foye Miaowan in Dunhuang experienced certain upheavals and drastic changes. During this period, there must have been a large number of Qiangdi who spoke Tibeto-Burmese among local population, and their paternal genes were close to modern Tibetan -Burmese people whose maternal genes are close to modern Inner and Inner Mongols. Those mentioned in document include: at this time, area included Han Han, Di Di, Qiang Qiang, Hexi Xianbei (i.e. Tufa Xianbei bald Xianbei Yifu Xianbei Yifu Xianbei Yiyun Xianbei Yiyun Xianbei, Lushuihu Lushui Hu Western Region Hu Xiyuhu and Tuge Hu Tu Gehu), Dunhuang documents show that intermarriage was common among these groups.
In other periods (the Cao Wei, Western Jin, Sui, and Tang dynasties), their paternal and matrilineal lines were close to modern Northern Han.
It is very interesting that genetic diversity of Sixteen Kingdoms period disappeared again in later Sui and Tang dynasties. This shows that with a population advantage, it is indeed difficult to change main population by integrating small groups.