Parallels with order. The best recent is Norman version by Professor Codingley, which includes an idealized order.
Measurements of ancient buildings taken by Renaissance authorities varied widely in their interpretation, not least because draftsman was trapped in drawing habits of his time, just as studies of same building showed that they differ as precisely as indicated.
Thus, whole course of Renaissance is interrupted from very beginning by concern for difference.
It is not difficult to see differences in classical architecture in practice, since there was a recognizable current of thought during Renaissance, and it is easy to identify Italian authority that had greatest influence on English Renaissance architecture.
It seems to me that any analysis of this kind should begin with Marcus Vitruvius Polio, Vitruvius was Augustus A Roman architect during emperor's reign. king who dedicated his extensive work on architecture and architecture, The Architectural Guide, to emperor, we have nothing to say about his career or buildings he designed. by architectural order, dealing with issues of urban planning, health care, building materials, architecture, astronomy and astrology, as well as design of military vehicles in all aspects.
Vitruvius details their proportions and design of their components, as well as how they are used in various types of architecture, he compares Doric, Ionic and Corinthian styles. classified into three main styles of columns, and Tuscan style is separated and considered treasure of country style.
In Vitruvius's descriptions of Order, he often refers to their Greek ancestors, and whether he or his contemporaries visited Greece, there is ample evidence that their Greek classical architecture existed in great numbers in southern Italy and Sicily, which left no doubt about Greek contribution to development of classical architecture.
Vitruvius is only surviving text on Roman architecture, and although scholars have since ridiculed his bland style or pompous language, we are very fortunate that only surviving text should be such a comprehensive and compelling document. .
In fact, Vitruvius was so versatile that he became a kind of yardstick by which writers of early Renaissance were judged.
There is no doubt that Alberti Leona Battista wrote first great work of Renaissance, Architecture, which closely imitated Roman works in style and content.
The Architectural Treatise consists of ten books and shows same basis in spirit of its Roman predecessors, order is described in great detail, and this is earliest identification of composites contained in a single order.
Serio, as my first Renaissance example, his five architectural books, from 17th century onwards, included first table showing orders for comparison, which he used as his first representation of four books, in which five orders are described in detail, illustrated with a selection of striking examples taken from antiques as well as from his own imagination.
Serio was first great coder. It is perhaps strange that his plates were drawn only half way to determine nature of their progression. The five orders, although somewhat random, shared same height and column diameters did not change. .
Torn between his fidelity to Vitruvian precepts and his desire for steady development of ordered proportions, Serio created a series of works that, as can be seen from illustrations, seem stocky to our eyes, but, in my opinion, in working on following Italian plate, order reached full maturity.
Giacomo da Vignola (1507–1573) published his Architectural Quintet, Andrea Palladio (1508–1580) also published his Architectural Quintet about eight years later.
Vignola's work uses high-quality engravings and insists on careful handling of relationships of all parts in each order, while Palladio, with same brief text, outlines order in his first book. The descriptions were jumbled with various construction notes. and building materials, and he seemed very eager to start applying what he considered a more interesting description.
Antiquity and Vignola's own examples take up bulk of book, with Palladio's influence on Inigo Jones and particular importance to English Renaissance, on other hand, in terms of temperament and practical architectural effect, Vignola's appeal to Sir William Chambers was far greater.
Besides these great Italian theorists, there is also Scamozzi, as 17th century English edition of his treatise was one of earliest parallels I have had access to, although partly to his predecessors.
Vincenzo Scarmozzi (152–1616) published his General Introduction to Architecture a year before his death, he was Palladio's student of Palladio, Palladio's influence is evident in his interpretation of order.
Meanwhile, Vincenzo's contributions are mainly academic upregulation and number theory results, and as table shows, his order is most refined and rich of all my examples.
I added Claude Perrault to represent great tradition of French Renaissance thought, and it was Perrault, of all theorists, who brought whole order of things into a logical and unalterable form.
Despite tight management of triple modular system, its order has steadily moved upwards, with an evenly distributed lengthcolumns and height of pedestal, and only among authorities did he maintain a constant height of his capitals at two diameters, whereby this is his composite column, which is higher than any other column and far exceeds size of capitals on which it is superimposed.
Among British theorists I chose two, Gibbs and Chambers, who were superior to Wren's students, Eames Gibbs published in 70s a book on Order of Order, which is quite different from everything published before, with exception of a wholly original method of proportion which eschews all reference to origin, mythological or otherwise, and confines itself to indicating order in which reader is installed, its components and its ancillaries.
The book published by Ames Gibbs does not pretend to be a philosophical or aesthetic work, but is simply a practical textbook.
This book is basically based on a few parts of a building to make a statement, it's closest thing I've ever tried to do, a simple tutorial, besides, it will always have a place in my heart, because In In this book, I reproduced for first time an example of order and taught me how to set up the volute and cylinder.
My latest theory is that of Sir William Chambers, which I must admit to have more intellectual weight, his wonderful book An Essay on Civil Architecture. In my opinion, most perfect of all parallel orders.
In Essays on Civil Architecture Chambers sets out principles of proportionality and documents a number of earlier sources with which he was intimately familiar.
William Chambers insisted on obedience where it was required, but allowed great latitude in interpretation of orders, did not try to hide his preferences and condemned when he considered it a justified place of condemnation, but always as objectively as it is possible for his key decisions.
The book balances historical and mythological references well, and whenever we feel that Chambers has become boring or dogmatic, he redeems himself with witty irony between book's descriptions and their main elements. also a beautifully illustrated volume.
These were my mentors in study of classical Renaissance architecture - Vitruvius in Rome, Serio, Vignola, Palladio, Scarmozzi in Italy, Perrault in France, Gibbs and Chambers in England.
I first prepared a series of mathematical tables showing proportions of each order. The paintings in dissertation are mostly taken from these authoritative theories, so these paintings have a consistent style.
Of course, I will refer to original illustrations from time to time. With five finished paintings in front of me, I can determine proportions of each painting with relative ease. I hope readers can understand reasons why authorities choose, even if they disagree.
Just as Chambers rejected ideal of absolute, unchanging proportions of order in which effects of objects are seen, he said that "not created solely by image on organ of vision, but by a series of reasoning and association of ideas generates, impresses and directs brain for acceptance solutions."
Perfection exists between two extremes, and approaching them produces powerful effects. All these rules of art are usually pointed out and explained. I have worked hard to select and perfect my five orders. Attitude, follow Chambers' advice and choose a middle course between two extremes.
The beauty of classical architecture continues to inspire modern architecture, and Renaissance allowed architecture to achieve amazing beauty that has a profound impact on future generations.