Spain Location: Home Page> Europe > Spain

Spain: development and reform during civil war

At beginning of twentieth century, during Spanish Civil War, a high-ranking military officer said that in one of military conflicts in which he was involved, it was expected that political confrontation will lead to bloody consequences, which also caused some tension in official clashes, a few days earlier were arrested, among them eldest son of late dictator Primo de Rivera, who apparently was involved in monarchist conspiracy.

In August 1932, General Sanguyo's attempted coup d'état brought this issue to fore, and Einer Ytterber was absent due to Danielson's leave. In August, Swedish government was informed about so-called "Sangulada". .

General Sanguio stated that putschists have no support outside army, on contrary, due to events in Germany, they will be driven by republican sentiments and dissatisfaction with reform of army,However, they were insufficiently prepared, After all, he can only endure failure.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

Iterberg spoke about role of military in Spanish politics, with his boss Ivan Danielsson (IvanDanielsson), unlike Swedish diplomat, coup attempt showed that republic is more likely to fall from for military pronouncements than for union action and leftism.

Because atmosphere in military circles was clearly anti-Republican. At same time, failure of bill indicates that right-wing and left-wing extremists Alaba Yeterberg oppose each other in republic, calling him a "great statesman". According to Iterberg, at that time government did not have support of Spanish business community.

It will not be easy to change this in a situation where opposition has few opportunities for legal expression, since “parliamentary elections that are not rigged by authorities are rare in Spain.”

Spain: development and reform during civil war

Danielson announces Sanserjo's verdict and praises government's position, thereby marking difference between republic and previous dictatorships. In his analysis, they were shocked by consequences of coup attempt, arguing that only consolidation of republic could significantly strengthen Manuel Azania's position.

The Government of Catalonia has given "unqualified popular support" to government of Sangarada in connection with debate on status of Catalonia and land reform. I will not stop insisting on this in future reports when it comes to Catalonia and land reform.

In eyes of Swedish diplomacy, condemnation of Primo de Rivera in December 1932 ended Spain's streak with dictatorship.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

Primo de Rivera is based entirely on far-right youth. Regarding Nazism, Danielson noted that Spanish media and public opinion generally reject it. So much so that government had to intervene to stop demonstrations in front of embassy of Germany and other authoritarian countries (Italy, Portugal) in order to act within framework of international diplomatic conventions.

If threat to Republic from right-wing extremists has been greatly reduced by General Sanjulio's failed coup, this does not prove that it is not a threat from far left.

As we have seen, issue of revolutionary strikes and anarcho-syndicalist riots has been present in reports of Swedish delegation since founding of Republic. In fact, Swedish diplomatic corps acted differently, and there is no need to talk about numerous strikes and riots that shocked Pavez, and about the social plight of Spain.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

We have already seen that Swedish Minister Plenipotentiary in Madrid criticized government for its inability to contain street riots and monastery fire in May 1931.

The tone of anxiety persisted into early 1932 and, according to Swedish diplomats, there were two tendencies among Spaniards and Spanish Republicans, one moderate and other radical . They saw attitude of masses, bourgeois conservative class living in panic, and fact that many families left Spain.

Extremist groups that tried to use violence to interfere with normal conduct of election campaign and declared war on Republic after elections were forced to defend themselves with repressive measures characteristic of era of dictatorship.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

In a secret document released 1932, Danielson said:"The Aza'a government's refusal to disrupt public order has recently been sanctioned by trade unionists and communists. Strike approved."

Rejected by strong, supported by public opinion, civil defense forces almost daily use weapons with indifference, so republic seems to have been trying to overthrow government for a long time, and extremists will always continue to create problems and destroy national economy.

However, according to policy of Sweden, some socialists look down on government's actions to suppress unrest caused by mobilization of workers. At same time, Swedish diplomats did not hesitate to point out that growth of social tension is associated with strengthening of extremist groups.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

Ferrol An example of a strike detailed by a delegation from Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs was that crisis in Spanish industry led to layoffs of companies, which caused a wave of solidarity with strike.

The serious events of January 1933 were described by Swedish Federation as "terror plots", "terrorist movements" and "Revolutionary strikes" movement". Analyzing situation, Danielsson believes that its origins were protests of Spanish anarcho-syndicalists against presence of three socialist ministers in government of republic, and does not exclude participation of USSR.

Regarding incident at old house, about 20 armed rebels were executed by police sent from Madrid, who also sent detailed documents to Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, stating that this tragic incident was originally was blocked in database, which caused a heated discussion, and opposition usually resorted to forceful methods of dealing with such things.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

Spanish Public Security Forces, trying to discredit Assanlu in eyes of Social Democrats, accuse him of police brutality in old house, as well as a failed attempt at a general strike was described by union as an attempt by unions. A new attempt to overthrow government to carry out its revolutionary policy.

According to efforts of government and decision of most moderate wing of labor movement, Ugda did not support strike, according to Swedish diplomats, they also mentioned arrest of Gode, accused of participating in a new military conspiracy, which is latest fact denied by Azania.

At end of 1933 Inar Ytterberg pointed to social chaos of new anarchist trade union prejudice, he stated that although Socialist Party had within party, these events could have serious consequences , since you can not count on loyalty of army.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

"From a good source" might have known truth about Union, or rather situation in army would have calmed down and revolutionary strike contained, but it is clear that most Spaniards "Talk to these extremists".

He added that this confusion could affect, for example, the fascist movement, which seemed to have many supporters among chiefs and officers of army, especially through supporters of Asanian reforms. .

Swedish diplomacy in Madrid has given extensive coverage of so-called "Catalan problem" since start of Aznar's short-lived government, regarding it as one of government's priorities.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

At end of April 1931, diplomat announced an agreement with Catalans to settle this issue in constitution, and honorary consul of Sweden Baron of Barcelona, moderate member of Catalan Regional Party< /strong> sees tension with Madrid, but provisional government of republic wholeheartedly agrees.

It all depends on fact that incumbent leader does not hurt anyone's feelings, religion needs regional autonomy and respect for private property, Baron Parael raised two big problems: separatism and absolutism , he wanted right wing of Spain to support republic, because if he did so to restore monarchy, it would be a civil war.

In a confidential report dated May 1931, Minister Plenipotentiary of Sweden in Madrid commented on difficulties faced by young Spanish Republic, which needed to establish itself at any cost, for which State S must be strengthened and, on other On other hand, it must meet demands of Catalan people, who demand autonomy.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

If he grants this autonomy, he will set a precedent and open door to similar demands from Basque nationalists and rest of country, moreover, the economic consequences for central government are serious and could even reach 1.6 billion pesetas in debt .

Ivan Danielsson believes that solution to Catalan problem, as well as land reform, will largely depend on who is in Manuel Azania and against Dominant in power struggle between leader of faction Alejandro Leroux .

Due to disagreements within government, such as his position on Catalonia, he was able to report that "the supporters of Catalan self-government have completely won", although media in Madrid tried to downplay issue, but there was a certain amount of hostility towards Catalans in rest of Spain.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

For this reason, Catalonia's constitution is stable, and Danielson's opinion has become a powerful propaganda weapon for Spanish right, making it clear that "ruling politics". The apparent distance between class and a large segment of public opinion" can be dangerous for Republicans.

After endless debate, June parliamentary agreement on Catalan autonomy, in a sense, did not stop President Danielson, who was surprised by victory and, judging by tone of his words, criticized that " only 184 out of 470 delegates showed up to vote.” Therefore, on this important issue, majority of deputies do not consider it necessary to express their opinion.

It was coup d'état attempt by San General Giulgio that united Republican politicians and made it possible to ratify Statute with support of even Radical Party and, finally, Daniel Sen. explained that Catalonia's desire for independence was more of a concern than Spanish public opinion, which was more willing to preserve administrative and national unity of republic.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

Finally, after describing solemn act of proclaiming Charter in San Sebastian, Danielson wonders how this will work in future, given that other regions of Spain will continue to demand similar autonomy. In addition, Swedish delegation succinctly stated that implementing provisions of Statute do not have a special vision, appealed to Catalan courts, etc.

1932Another important topic is Land Reform, contents and many details of this reform have been specially made public by Swedish delegation in next quarterly report. Danielson noted that The reform has been subject of much debate in parliament, with opposition arguing that real benefits for farmers are minimal compared to huge social changes it will bring.

In analysis that follows, it is reported that land reform also benefited from coup attempt, as it managed to incorporate some provisions regarding land confiscations and other great powers in Spain, on other hand, cost of reforms to Spanish economy was big influence.

Spain: development and reform during civil war

1933 A major political event in Spain was general election held on November 19, first universal suffrage in Spain, administered in great detail by a Swedish legation economic situation as cost of major reforms in first biennium of republic.

This will be determining factor for a turn to right in Spanish public opinion, with internal political instability showing wild swings despite government policies that have overvalued peseta and International Bank President Quesnay admiring government's economic policies full of confidence , but this is not social unrest, and control of these unrest is a threat to government.


Spanish tragedy

"Bloody Sands: Spanish Civil War"

"Essay on history of civil society"

Related Blogs

Spain: development and reform during civil war Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic Why during Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, 189 schools of thought evolved from 189 schools, and in end only Confucianism and Taoism survived? History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century British Prime Minister Truss resigned: underlying causes developed after Second World War World War II carbonated drinks, German Fanta, American Coke, Japanese marble soda that Chinese soldiers drink How scary is north of Myanmar? Although there is no flame of war here, it is a lawless "Sin City". How shabby is Chiang Kai-shek's mausoleum? Bronze statues were beheaded and flogged, mausoleum was splattered with paint, and descendants wept and wanted to be buried Martin Jacques said bluntly: China has been reduced to CCP, and West cannot see history and civilization of China. Authentic South Korean countryside: Prosperity is only on TV, and low-rise earth houses and roadside shops can be seen everywhere