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Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

At beginning of 20th century internal situation in Sweden was unclear. Danielsen denied foreign media rumors about possible abdication of Alfonso Syra and called for a General Strike he also commented:Some colleagues spoke of a military plot by Generals Saro and Cavalcanti to restore dictatorship, but king did not accept it" .

Danielson concluded that Berenger had good intentions, but was clearly not in circumstances required by his mandate, and began debating whether new court would be constitutional.

Diplomats announce death and funeral of Primo de Rivera, celebrating his strong patriotism and undeniable honor", press hailing both his achievements, Moroccan war and society, and catastrophic event, and praising him for that he did not retire on time, Danielson believes that he is popular among ordinary people, but not among intellectuals.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

Monarchs are gradually rebuilding, they are also socialists, demonstrations in honor of Pablo Iglesias have become "exemplary order" thanks to wide participation of working class. Meanwhile, in Catalonia, propaganda of republicanism, its cultural and linguistic independence, crushed dictatorship.

In Portugal, where Danielson is also a minister plenipotentiary, people are impolite about it and talk about "Spain in danger", elections were delayed because government needed reliable electoral rolls, while Monarchy's "propaganda" campaign in Madrid's Plaza de Toro failed.

Although they already had right to vote in local elections and Primo de Rivera promised them to vote in general elections, it seems that women were also excluded from elections and results were cancelled.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

Ivan Danielsson also reported on political activities of Indalecio Prieto and Melquiades Alvarez, Fonso XI, and he made a lot of money from public concessions. Anyway, problem with Spanish republicanism is that it's divided because they didn't decide to join party.

Danielson admired "justice" government, which was followed by student rallies and protests provoked by celebrities such as Miguel de Unamuno. He wrote: "Several Spaniards I spoke to expressed no concern about political situation."

The old parties were in turmoil and left wanted to seize opportunity to create a republic. The elections forced all parties to take a clear stand on issue. Elder Count Jimeno, who was interviewed by Danielson, believed that there was no way out of crisis without military intervention of Romanian side.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

Gimeno thinks Beranger should make way for a strong government, but no one in Spain has charisma to lead it, and Republicans can only compete for 70 seats anyway.

From June 1930 Ivan Danielsson's reports to Swedish government show a qualitative change that presented Berenguer government with rather positive information, highlighting its "good will" or efforts to restore Spain to normalcy. constitutionalism, it becomes even more critical.

As far as I know, this is a return of censorship and a ban on political debate, but this is not acceptable from a Swedish democratic point of view. Danielson will now hesitate to call government a "dictatorship" and see it as cause of political instability.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

While opposition to Berenger, collapse of Impesta, as a positive, against backdrop of all this, emphasizes easing of government policy towards Catalonia, king's trip to Barcelona, ​​an interview with Santiago Alba, suggested that newly formed court to conduct an in-depth review of Constitution to make monarchy a constitutional and democratic system along lines of British model.

He later wrote:"It is well known that Spanish trade unions have almost no money. Therefore, government was able to prove that Russian gold entered country for distribution to strikers." strong>

Nevertheless, Danielson concludes: "De facto dictatorship in Spain could have more serious consequences than pandering to liberal political games."

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

A frequent topic among Swedish diplomats is turn of events in censorship. September 15 he seemed to be celebrating victory: "Censorship is finally over in Spain". But two weeks later he had to report that it was reintroduced. In late September, he reported on rumors that Duke of Alba might resign after being attacked by "clergy debate" over his travels abroad.

In autumn of 1930, after Danielson resigned from Arragel, he had to admit that things had worsened due to "permanent revolutionary strike" between protesters and police. Bloody clashes broke out between two, referring to arrest of Republican and labor leaders for instigating a general strike.

According to Danielson, they were very nervous, no doubt, some of them were cradle of diplomats who considered a new dictatorship only solution, and even liberal monarchists tried to use them to overthrow government.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

However, he believes that foreign media have exaggerated magnitude of these situations, which for Spaniards are only of relative importance, almost mass entertainment. Danielson, who is clearly still under influence of intelligence from pro-government groups, attempted to play down what he saw as exaggerated media rumors in his report.

If foreign media found situation in Spain chaotic, then Alfonso XI had no choice but to go into exile as soon as possible. But, to be honest, most of information in international media is not only exaggerated and biased, but often false. Not everything is known due to censorship, but government does not seem to want to hide most important facts.

To this day, complete peace reigns in country. It now appears that Jaca and Quattro Ventos were a master plan to overthrow regime, whose failure was caused by Jaca's early rebellion, especially since most of army was loyal to king and government. The majority of population was passive, and when violence breaks out, involvement of communist elements can always be demonstrated.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

This is not an empty word, although Danielson added that Republicans have benefited from "epidemic of strikes" that is happening in this country, often in conditions of pure anarchy, riots and looting in streets, Danielson warned Republicans feared that purely communist methods of struggle will have a negative effect on republican cause.

The military intervention against Chaka and Four Winds has dealt a heavy blow to government, but it is clear that he and king have majority support in army, and new trial will be usual indiscriminate one, as demanded by left. in right group, it also needs someone to think it's best solution.

January 1931, in Danielson's detailed report, entitled "The Spanish Republican Movement", he again mentions Haka and Four Winds, "An organized conspiracy to introduce republic into Spain", and progress of republicanism with Ala Zamora as its guide.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

He is said to have given away his vast fortune to enlist support of Republican Party, which violently attacked king with leaflets. Therefore, diplomat was surprised by optimism of monarchy when King Alfonso said to one of his colleagues at New Year's Eve dinner in palace: "The monarchy can trust army and has no reason to worry about masses."

As an aspect of political struggle of that time, it should be taken into account that trend of this purely revolutionary nature was manifested more than once.

It is said that to neutral observer, way it propagates itself in public opinion is astounding even among those social classes that should never oppose monarchy. sovereign grew, and no one could be held responsible for this long and intolerable political mess.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

Because of rumors of a possible change of government, Danielsson told Berenguer that he wanted to resign, but Alfonso XII was vehemently opposed to this, according to information he received from “informed sources”. Among them were two groups, and one group was led by Mora, Count Buharale, Romanoni and Alhucemas with Admiral Margas, who also followed this unit.

Under leadership of Santiago Alba and Melquiades Alvarez, as well as Sánchez · Guerra and Kambo led left line. However, they don't seem to get these guys. According to Danielson, Social Democrats and Republicans prefer not to campaign and are in favor of abstention.

Danielson and several of ambassadors he spoke to agreed that it was a big mistake for king not to distance himself from current government and not call a constitutional convention. While situation is calm, it's just calm before storm.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

There are rumors that some generals (Martinez Anido, Varela and Cavalcanti) offered services to king for operations in a country with a military dictatorship, on other hand, colonels and regimental officers say that commanders in Madrid agreed to keep army out of political affairs.

Despite "uncertainty and threat" political situation, Danielson believes that Aznar government still has control over situation, and authorities have told Danielson not to let international media influence what happens in Spain. Indeed, Paves was clearly a monarchist.

Danielson reports that there are two trends regarding establishment of Republic, one of which is support for use of all means, even revolutionary ones. However, majority opposed participation in elections and decided "strongly" to "continue their revolutionary activities in order to achieve regime change."

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

The events of 12 to 14 April 1931 followed in detail by Swedish mission on 13th, Danielsson reported: “That part of Spanish people which thinks and acts politically, freely and unquestioningly expressed his preferences in this conflict.”

In addition to giving details about regime change, Swedish diplomat summed up his thoughts: “The regime change was peaceful and bloodless. The crushing victories of anti-dynastic parties in municipal elections surprised even winners themselves. paralyze supporters of monarchy."

Absolute majority in a monarchy means nothing in most countries, since political life is concentrated in cities, and these cities overwhelmingly doom monarchy to death.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

After proclamation of republic, enthusiasm of city is indescribable. Throughout festival, people cheered for republic on streets. Although there are no police on streets, there is nothing superfluous. .

April 17, 1931 Danielson reported that authority of new Republican government seemed to be respected throughout country and that potential danger to new regime would come from communists, not from monarchism. Alcalá Zamora had just left his post, passing a significant number of decrees and announcing profound social and administrative reforms.

Spain: political situation during first biennium of Republic

Among Sweden's particular concerns about Second Spanish Republic is dominated by its influence with both anarchist and ideas, which were main themes of political development in Spain during two-year period of First Republic, led by discussion of Swedish legation in Madrid. , which includes five items.

1. The overthrow of King Alfonso XI and cause of monarchy.

2. Religious legislation and complex church-state relations.

3. Constitutional Court and creation of Spanish Republic.

4. Military coup attempts and revolutionary strikes.

5. The Great Reformation: The Catalan Problem and Land Reform.

For this occasion, Danielson called on co-founder of Socialist Party and leader of Spanish labor movement (other than anarcho-syndicalists), whom he named Primo de Rivera. The Council of State for his dust tactics, defined as "great tactics without theory".


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