When a country is independent, it will have a "Declaration of Independence", when it adopts a constitution, it will have its own "Constitution". However, few people wonder what language "Declaration of Independence" and "Constitution" were written in.
After all, everyone subconsciously believes that documents of which country are written in language of that country.
As for this kind of subconscious, it is estimated that only a few Korean netizens have it.
After all, at annual ceremony of celebrating independence of Republic of Korea, it is necessary to read declaration in Chinese characters, which is solemn and solemn.
Take your time, in half a month 104th anniversary of South Korea's independence will come, and Declaration of Independence will open its 104th ancient and solemn Chinese reading:
"Relying on force to oppress 20 million North Koreans full of anger and resentment does not guarantee peace in East Asia."
…to lay foundation for peace in East Asia, an essential element of world peace and human happiness. North Korea's independence is not sentimental. "
Above is original text of Declaration of Independence of Republic of Korea,This is what we call "Declaration of Independence of Republic of Korea" - clanging Chinese characters, ringing rhymes.
Declaration of Independence
We cannot deny that Chinese language declaration ceremony is actually a tradition passed down from generation to generation when South Korea established a provisional government in Shanghai in 1919. The relationship didn't just start in 1919...Shang Guizi, source of civilization
Looking back over thousands of years of history, especially long history of ancient China and Korean peninsula, we find that earliest source of Korea is engraved in history books written in ancient Chinese.
It turns out that South Korea was not originally called "Korea", and it was only a name that appeared over past hundred years.
During late Yin and Shang Dynasties, more than 3,000 years ago, when King Wu defeated Zhou, Jizi, a nobleman of Yin Shan, King Zhou's uncle, crossed sea and came to Korean Peninsula. 5,000 immigrants controlled primitive society at that time. The first Korean regime, Kija Joseon, was established on Korean peninsula.
But at that time, territory of Jizi-Korea was much wider than it is now, and probably included today's Korean Peninsula and Liaodong Peninsula. This is prototype of Korea's long history.
From this point of view, Jizi and 5,000 people who accompanied him were main source of language and written exchange on Korean Peninsula.
What language do they communicate in? Of course it's Chinese.
In other words, origin of Korean and Chinese characters began over 3,000 years ago.
Remote but peaceful waters and soils of Korean Peninsula raised people who suffered from wars and rested here, and characters brought by Yin and Shang nourished life that lives on this land from generation to generation.
Until later period of Warring States period, State of Yang sent General Qin Kai to attack North Korea Jizi from a political plan to compete with State of Qi, and struck Yalu River in one fell swoop.
In Jeezy's last resort, North Korea, which was supposed to retreat east of Yalu River, had a faint shadow overshadowing Korean Peninsula today.
However, whether an immigrant Shang Zhou or a soldier of Yang State, they all speak and write in Old Chinese.
After that, Qin Shi Huang pacified six countries and used all kinds of barbaric and tyrannical torture. Some unbearable people fled to Korean Peninsula in search of work and continued to live a stable life without language barriers.
Until another man, Wei Mang, crossed Yellow Sea again, there was a noticeable regime change in Jizi Korea.
Wei Mang was originally a native of Yan during Warring States period. As Han Dynasty was established, he had to take his people east to seek refuge in Jizi's North Korea.
At that time, Monarch Zizhong had great respect for him and treated him like a doctor, but he did not expect that when he became powerful, he would ungratefully take over Jizhong regime and restore Weishi's Korea.
However, no matter how regime changed at that time, people came one after another, but language and characters they used were pictograms of Central Plains - Chinese characters."North Korea" is named after Hongwu Emperor.
The first feudal dynasty in ancient China, Han Dynasty, was dynasty that most fully ruled Korean Peninsula.
Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, who knew how to fight well, directly destroyed Wiman Korea and divided it into 4 districts, most important of which was Lelan district, located near today's Pyongyang. Daifang County, founded during Three Kingdoms period, is located in today's Seoul.
From this perspective, official languages and symbols of Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms were introduced to Korean Peninsula at that time.
At that time, three tribes of Chenhan, Mahan, and Bianhan in southern part of Korean Peninsula were called "Three Han" or "Korea" in Central Plains Dynasty at that time.
Hence name "Korea".
During late Jin Dynasty, during "Eight King Rebellion" and "Five Men in China", regime in northern China was in turmoil, and power of counties and counties was established by Central Plains Dynasty in Korean Peninsula also faced a challenge. The Korean Jizi seized opportunity to stage a coup and found Silla.
Silla has not been idle for hundreds of years, making great efforts to control and strengthen its troops. Then, in war for division of Korean Peninsula, together with Tang dynasty, each occupied north and south, and today's Pyongyang is dividing line between north and south.
Since then, Tang Dynasty Mandarin has also been introduced to North Korea, and Chinese characters are still main or even only words used by locals for communication and writing.
If we talk about changes in Chinese characters used on Korean Peninsula in ancient times, it is worth mentioning that after fall of Tang Dynasty, rise of Goryeo Dynasty began.
He united Korean peninsula, but under pressure of Mongolia he had to intermarry with it. In last three or four hundred years, language and symbols of Korean peninsula have been influenced by Mongolian language, and its pronunciation has changed. certain features of Mongolian pronunciation.
This also explains why some Koreans now classify Korean as part of Altaic language family.
But influence is influence. The Mongolian language itself imposes strict requirements on language structure, which makes it difficult for it to be widely and freely disseminated. Therefore, Chinese characters are still official language of Goryeo Dynasty.
However, pro-Mongolian position of Goryeo royal family caused indignation and disgust of ordinary people at that time, they looked for opportunities to overthrow Goryeo regime and established a new regime headed by Li Guicheng, who was close to Chinese civilization and culture.
At this time, early Ming Dynasty existed in China.
Li Guicheng asked Ming Emperor for name of his new regime, and Hongwu Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang named it Joseon himself.
This meaningful name of country has been preserved: Chaoyang was born, and Xiwei was peaceful. The meaning is as bright and peaceful as ancient Korea, and at same time draw close to China, promote Chinese culture, and establish close diplomatic relations forever.
——This is the third mode named after "North Korea" after "Jizi Joseon" and "Joseon Way" - Joseon Lee.
The close relationship between North Korea and China also reached its peak under this regime. Lee's North Korea was subordinate to great country of Central Plains, China, in almost everything. At time, word "big deal" was used as evidence. Big, that is, a big country, China too. Cultural communication and exchanges between two countries have also reached an unprecedented peak.
Chinese characters, Chinese language and Chinese culture are official language, characters, main customs and traditions and humanistic thoughts of Li Korea.
And Ming Dynasty didn't live up to his expectations. When Japan invaded mainland Korea, they resolutely sent troops to rescue and protect Joseon Dynasty. It is for this reason that Joseon royal family of Lee family is grateful to Ming Dynasty.
To this day, Korean official documents are still written in Chinese characters.
When did South Korea start to have its own characters, or even to abandon dominance of Chinese characters?Weak national power breeds weak cultural influence
The culture of a country should rely on national strength of country to spread and spread. The great and glorious national strength of previous dynasty made subordinate countries around China regard Chinese culture as advanced culture of heavenly realm, and competed to imitate and respect and learn from it.
However, with decline of national power at end of Qing Dynasty, gates of backward countries were blown up again and again by great powers. The dignity of country is still missing, so how can we talk about radiation and influence of culture?
In 1443, King Sejong of Kingdom of Korea summoned virtuous servants to Hall of Virtue, forgot to sleep and eat, burned ointment and sundial, and created Korean phonetic alphabet, Hongminjonggeum. That is "hangul" later.
But actually, at that time, "Hangul" was only used among common people and uneducated women, and upper-class nobles still used Chinese characters as a badge of honor.
However, influence of Chinese character cultural circle declined until Qing dynasty was destroyed by great powers, and Chinese cultural circle, with feudal China as its axis, completely lost its actual and superficial cohesion and centripetal strength.
After World War II, situation in world changed, and Korean Peninsula was divided into "North Korea" and "South Korea".
The South Korean government has implemented a policy of "DeChinese characters" many times, and education sector no longer requires or even explicitly prohibits study of Chinese.
While it is not possible to accurately express each character by relying on phonetic "Hangul" originating only in Korea, Chinese characters are placed in brackets for annotations rather than using Chinese characters as body text.
However, tougher policy, harder it is to resist. Organizations and people continue to protest against "DeChinese characterization" and demonstrate against demand to "ban study of Chinese characters."
Thanks to continuous efforts, Chinese character course has finally achieved a comparable role in South Korea - it has become an elective course for Korean students, and it is not banned or encouraged.
However, those who specialize in law must be proficient in Chinese characters.
Why, I think, thick historical and legal documents written in Chinese characters is answer to this question.Summary
Inheritance of Korean culture with ancient and rich Chinese characters - is it a good fortune for Chinese characters or a misfortune for Korean nation? Is abandonment of Chinese characters and restart of phonetic new text progress of Korean nation or decline of the influence of Chinese characters?
Only time can give an answer to this question.
However, regardless of political or cultural origins, South Korea is linked to China from ancient history to actual national conditions. Its writing continues spiritual core of Han culture's ancestors.
However, when a nation has existed independently and freely in forest of world, without being tied to any nation, it needs to reshape its national consciousness, cultural consciousness and textual consciousness.
Perhaps South Korea is simply changing its cultural consciousness in order to have an exceptional national heritage in long run.
But how long this journey will take, none of us knows...