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History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

1931-1936, Spanish bibliography covers this period widely and is well known, and among Spanish publications it is worth noting that publications of particular interest in context of our study: contribution Aegido Leon in foreign policy of Second Republic and activities of Pereira Castanares.

This is an important starting point for any historian who wants to get an idea of ​​twentieth century Spanish international relations, as Pereira Castanares did in his famous book on international relations, International Studies in Spain: Foreign Policy . and current issues”, gives a complete and correct idea of ​​the main coordinates.

In general, whole basic historiography of international relations is important for contextualization of Swedish and Spanish diplomatic relations. Also, within this general framework, recent work of Angel Vinias is an indispensable guide.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

Vinyas has a deep knowledge of subject, a thorough analysis of documents and sources, and extensive international experience, making him particularly suited to this type of research.

In our Solitude of Republic change of course and Republican strategy of appointing diplomats to defeat Western democracies, Shield of Republic strong> also greatly helped fund Republican War in which there is no shortage of Scandinavian and Baltic materials.

"Glory to Republic..." The main reason is large amount of data presented in it, discussions with other historians, and document does not mention Sweden as an appendix. It will be interesting to see if Vinyas' interpretation of Negrin's role, echoes of British attitude towards Spain, and Swedish diplomatic papers publish much of this proposal.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

However, perhaps of direct relevance to our research is fact that work coordinated by author on Diplomats of Republic contains a detailed analysis of work done by Embassy of Republic of Spain in London, Paris, Washington, Bern, Prague and Mexico, in addition to all of these general considerations that Vinyas covers in introductory chapters.

Also noteworthy is work of Elorza and Viscalondo on Comintern, as well as work of Quintana Navarro on presence of Spain in Europe 1931–1936 and work "Seville Pool" on war in Madrid, latter contains references to other two Swedish authors relevant to our study for their various writings on Spanish foreign policy and diplomacy in 1930s.

These are Enrique Moradillos and Antonio Manuel Rencal Doyle, first of whom describes 1930s Spain well. He was especially interested in Britain's attitude to current international situation, new strategy of Comintern, and hostility of regime.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

Moradillos is an expert, which is crucial to our study, and it is precisely because Sweden developed a close relationship with Britain throughout period of appeasement that works by Moradillos are included, including Spanish and British, so they make a big contribution.

Antonio Maria Moral Roncal is to date only Spanish writer who has analyzed Swedish mission in relation to role of Spanish capital during Civil War. This study is based on a large body of literature and is critical to any further research on this topic.

Unfortunately, he spends so little space describing Sweden, not being well aware of role that Scandinavian countries played for Spain in war, from her humanitarian contribution to republic in terms of aid, even with in terms of percentage of volunteers who came to fight is strange for Swedish historians.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

While understandably their contribution to Spanish War was less obvious outside of Scandinavian countries, much of Roncal's work focuses on diplomatic patronage during Civil War. Therefore, this question is relevant to our study.

Roncal also dealt with Spanish foreign relations during Second Republic and Civil War, while Marina Casanova and Pérez Ruiz did interesting work in field of bilateral foreign relations, they dominated Spanish historiography, dealing with Spanish-American diplomacy.

Among these works, however, there has been an increase in study of Eastern Europe in Spanish historiography of international relations.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

Askalat discusses issue of Sweden and British foreign policy with Sweden at his conference in London, during which something similar happened with French spyware and proxies, and finally there is a thesis on Iceland. , explores impact of Spanish Civil War on Nordic countries, reflecting well Scandinavian perceptions of Northern Europe.

However, Spanish War, with few other national documents, gives an overly simplistic and naive view of subject, and you may be surprised that there is nothing about Frankish foreign policy in this report . > while story usually focuses on this topic.

In a later period, namely period of Civil War, when these issues were mentioned, her relations with four countries, such as Germany, Italy, England and France, were often discussed. In some cases, diplomacy is "First Franco period", but usually it is years following victory of the Franco regime.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

While there has been a significant increase in research on Franciscanism in recent times, perhaps to some extent new perspectives prevailing, for example from a cultural-historical point of view, there is still little mention of franco Spanish diplomatic work during war years is another reason that justifies importance of studying offices of representatives of Burgos government abroad.

Information on international travel abounds, although historical scientific rigor varies, but no study on Scandinavian travelers provides data or is generally supported by Scandinavian sources.

The first systematic approach was from Spanish side when Swedish volunteers were sent in 1977, however, despite short course, most of Spanish-language information about Sweden's participation in International Brigade A is well known in book >2005 Swedish lawyer Nicaron living in Spain correctly collected all achievements of Swedish historiography to date.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

There was also work on specific aspects of Swedish humanitarian assistance during civil war, among which is work of Bennetto and Drew, in rich bibliography on International Brigade we can find some interesting aspects.

Because bibliography on Spanish Civil War is very extensive, in this exhibition we have focused on specific subject that we have focused on, but it is clear that any serious study of this subject requires knowledge of all recent Spanish and main contribution of foreign historiography of Spanish Civil War.

Common works of foreign authors on history of Sweden and Spain are very important for us, because they suggest an approach to historical reality from starting point, from further understanding of specific circumstances in which events occurred. As for misinterpretations, this is biggest problem due to ignorance of local conditions.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

Because these issues are discussed less partisanly from an external point of view, external does not necessarily mean more objective, since historian is always imbued with his own subjectivity, his own "presence in history", but it really depends on different subjectivity and references of local historians, so this contribution is quite common.

In these studies, first of all, we turn to Rafael, Khabek and Sevostyanov, who collected very important documentary material, interpretation which has been subject of controversy in historiography throughout recent Republic trilogy.

Secondly, we highlight a contribution that compiles in detail key topic of our study, Spanish and Swedish diplomatic negotiations within League of Nations during Second with great power relations, which complements Balforth and Preston's arguments on the same issue.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

In general, of all great contributions of foreign writers to Spanish Civil War are works of Thomas, Penn, Preston Bolloton, which contain works on role of republicanism and ideologies other than Carter in Civil War. your classical and controversial writings, I have used I Ching and Quran as examples for reference.

In Roberts' special study on International Brigade, Scutelski's arguments are key and at same time probably latest and most complete work on topic among other very interesting contributions. On one hand, many issues have been clarified. .

Regarding intervention of Comintern in brigade organization, it clearly shows that more than 80% are working class travelers, other general works may also be of interest in relation to international volunteering in support of Francoist personnel in Spain . and issues related to international assistance in form of military equipment, each of which has three relevant staff members: Keny, Orson and Howson.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

Howson's work documents efforts and achievements of belligerents in purchasing and acquiring weapons from abroad, and he mentions existence, albeit minor, of Swedish-made weapons of Republican People's Army.

Depending on methodological choices that underlie our study, empirical evidence we find in our study of diplomatic missions may require a rethinking of historical framework of diplomatic missions.

In particular, influence of certain aspects of Spanish or Swedish political life on diplomats necessarily leads us to expand historiographical framework presented here to include other historiography relevant to issue under consideration.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

In general, historical literature in Spain and abroad seems to offer following insight into problems we are dealing with.

1. First, in 1930s, there were almost no noteworthy political and diplomatic relations between Spain and Sweden.

2. Secondly, during Spanish Civil War, Sweden made no secret of its sympathies for cause of Republic, although officially it was neutral, it was of little use.

3. Although Sweden received some refugees in his building in Madrid, he provided great assistance to Republic during war, including medical care (Swedish-Norwegian hospital Alkoy), help for children (orphanage). , financial assistance (accommodation and money provided by Swedish Relief Committee for Spain) and military assistance in form of volunteers from International Brigade.

4. Sweden, as a democratic country, had nothing to do with Franco regime during civil war, in fact, it was one of last countries to recognize this regime.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

As for Swedish historical sources, they are fully consistent with Spanish and foreign languages. But there is a remarkable feature that most specific studies on this issue, carried out by Lundwijk and Carmagno, concerned issue of good relations with Republic.

They show a more critical point of view with tacit support of public opinion, but not of left parties, due to notoriously ambiguous policies pursued by Swedish Social Democratic Peasant Government since outbreak of war.

According to author's analysis, relations between Sweden and Spain are more tense than people think, and this also applies to relations with Francoist Spain, especially among Swedish business people.

History of Spain: diplomatic relations in early 20th century

We believe that this study, which makes full use of original documents provided by Sweden and Spain, can make a valuable contribution to study of relations between two countries or downplay current status quo.

Here we end with topics we have covered, but we could expand discussion. As noted, experimental data are somewhat scarce. Monographs and consulting papers on specific topics we study are worthy gaps. completed through detailed research.


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