In addition to discovery of New World, restoration of ancient world is second milestone that separates us from Middle Ages and marks transition to modern life.The
Renaissance marks century and a half between Petraka and Erasmus, development of Greek language. Re-examination and consequences that will come with it. It survived as a living language among Venetian colonists and Calabrian monks, but did not have an impact on literature.
This movement was formerly known as Roman Revival and originated in Rienzi. Rome was abandoned by pope, who moved from Tiber to Rhone, where it was ruled by the French from Cahors, and fell into feudal hands, like any enslaved country.
Rienzi restored Republic, restored city's autonomy, and commemorative "Inscription" attached to Capitol is a monument to world domination. People have ceased to be great through Church, but have returned to greatness they inherited from antiquity.
The Tribune-led mantra of their patriotism is archeology. Near Talpia Rock and She-Wolf's Lair, in front of Capitoline Temple, he proclaimed their rights to Empire and Nations. He invited Italian people to National Assembly to restore unity of Italy and glory and power of ancient Rome.
Patriotism, National Independence, People's Freedom are based on study of ancient cultural relics and study of "The King's Power Law" Rhetorical interpretation of fragment .
Lian Zi's political project failed, but it set off a movement in intellectual world that was deeper and more enduring than government deal. For his ideas were taken up by greatest writer of his time and set forth in most eloquent and kindest prose he had seen in a thousand years.
Petraka calls emergence of patriotic tribunes and orators like him dawn of a new world and a golden age. He passionately desired to cleanse soil of Italy from infection of barbarism.
Protest against foreign invaders, against feudal aristocracy, this is main type of medieval politics that has become eternal theme of humanists. This is link between dreamer Enzi and followers of Petraki. Boccaccio has already spoken of bloodshed of tyrants. But political influence of antiquity, at first visible, eventually gave way to a purely literary influence.
The longing for Latin has done Italian a disservice, and Petraca denounces Dante's mistake in writing Divine Comedy in vulgar language. He even regretted that "Ten Days Talk" was not written in Latin, and refused to read it.
Classic first becomes a model and standard of style. The root of Renaissance was to convince someone who wrote like Cicero than someone who wrote like Bartol or William Ockham. People have more important advantages.
And radiant thought must overcome thought shrouded in dialectics. In this respect, immediate success has been achieved. Petraka and his imitators learned to write excellent Latin. Few of them have honor of being original thinkers, whose work of increasing erudition was crushed by storms of Reformation, and scholars who emerged after storms of Reformation did anew an incomparably finer work.
But they write letters very well. In hundreds of volumes, from Petraka to Sadolet and Poland, we can trace every thought, note every pulsating movement. This was first time that a person's character was revealed in analytical difference, and, moreover, first time it could be examined with precision.
A new personality type begins with Petraka, an introspective person who chooses his ideals and shapes his thoughts.
The medieval system could have prepared him for death. However, he sees vicissitudes of fate and hardships of life, relying on intelligent treasures of ancient world, relying on abundance of wisdom that comprehensively develops it.
To a person who does not know Greek, as well as to first generation of Renaissance - fourteenth century - much in ancient philosophy is incomprehensible. But there was a system called Stoics, which they deeply studied and understood.
For man in general, seeking self-help and empowerment, seeking to escape stereotypes of medieval masculinity. They are created by authority but trained to distrust conscience. Seneca is an oracle when conscience belongs to them and trusts only others. For he is a classic of spiritual discipline, vigilant self-knowledge and conscience.
It was under these influences that modern type of personality was formed. Religious action and part of hierarchy are at a low level due to church schisms. There has never been such a corrupt and barbaric time in culture.
Renaissance finishers ready for emergency of equal wealth and status. He does not rely on some inheritance, but on his own energy and resources. But it all started badly, with little concern for rights of others, little concern for sanctity of life.
During first phase of revival, or at beginning of Latin phase, it was assumed that familiarity with classics would lead to admiration for paganism.
Coluccio Salutato, Florentine secretary of Petracca's time, wrote classical Latin letters and defended new knowledge against growing accusations of secularism.
The statue of Virgil has been removed from market in town that made him famous, a scandal for a nice guy. Petra felt lacking, and writing beautiful Latin would be nonsense if there weren't more languages people could speak than they already knew.
But Latin classics are not new discoveries. The material gain of knowledge is simply not enough to complete perfect human type. Ideas, forgotten sciences, forgotten truths remain.
Without this, people will remain destitute, fighting in dark, never realizing possibility of existence. Everything to do with revival of antiquity depends on revival of Greek studies.
Because Petrak has a culture of that time that transcends everything, he feels what is most needed in front of them. Knowledge of truth, not accidental and partial, but as complete and certain as rest of civilization allows.
If Latin is still limited to tools, it should be abandoned. Then new knowledge will not be enough to break dependence on author, tyranny of great people and exclusivity of school.
Neither rhetoric nor poetry can deprive Aristotle and Peter Lombard, St. Augustine and of supremacy of >St. Thomas > entitles them to a place in constant stream of thought, but does not entitle them to law of progress in field of knowledge.
Petraka's movement signifies a buried world renaissance, enriched with a huge amount of things that Western peoples allow to be thrown away, while medieval civilization was deprived of them.
This implies a preference for Greek pattern. The excellence of School of Athens, incorporation of science into literature, elevation of Hippocrates and Archimedes to same level as Throne and Quintilian, this culture fought a great battle with cathedrals and priests of Church in the fourth and fifth centuries.
This is why Latin Restoration was a direct result of Petraki's example. When a better tool falls into hands of someone curious and hungry for something new, bigger changes follow.
The second generation of humanists sat at feet of Byzantine masters. The first was Chrisololas, who was sent to Italy on a political mission and settled in Florence in 1397 as a language teacher. Due to lack of teachers, he likes enterprising people such as Scaparia, Guarino, Orispa, and in >Constantinople continue learning.
Fairfo stayed there for seven years, working in great library, not yet defiled by Turks. Until middle of fifteenth century, Italy was full of immigrant scholars, usually poor and without a permanent source of support, but when they offered Plato to Henry of Ghent and Thucydides to Vincent de Beauvais, their enthusiasm was instantly awakened.
The superiority of learning, even in very fragmented cases, is then irresistible. It was then that three events occurred that determined victory of Renaissance.
The Emperor arrived at Florentine Cathedral with several bishops and gods. In ensuing discussion, Greek scholars were warmly welcomed.
Eastern Bishop Bessarion remained in Italy, became a cardinal and made a great contribution to study of Plato and end of long reign of Aristotle. His collection of exquisite manuscripts is in service of scholars in San Marco Library in Venice.
The Fall of Constantinople forced some of fugitives to seek refuge in Italy, some brought with them their books, which were even outnumbered by people. Because study of Greece at that time was very mature, but there were very few manuscripts.
The third important event was election of Palentucelli, who became Pope Nicholas V. On this day, a new science captured Roman church, and Rome began to be considered capital of Renaissance.
This should not be nature of question. For aliens with their new knowledge, forces and tools invaded territory occupied by clergy.
In Middle Ages, first monasteries, and then universities, created under protection of Church, had a social civilization. In addition to law, he also monopolized literature. This ended when clergy lost their intellectual edge and were forced to share their influence with the laity. They were classically educated and more familiar with pagan than with Christian authors.
There is a common assumption, a broader vision based on classical and Christian material. Humanists have independent judgments and can think about world in which they live, from outside, without abandoning it, out of habit.
As Pat puts it: The human mind has conquered for itself a new realm of sensation and thought that is not opposed to, but simply transcendent and independent of, spiritual system of real situation at time. "
This was one of many reasons for weakening of church control at time. The triumphant return of exile not only caused an uproar in society, but also demanded compensation for arrears. The delight of those who first read Homer, Sophocles and Plato became passion of those who neglected these treasures. Complaints of Lost.
Ages of ignorance and barbarism have brought about this result. Western Christianity has abandoned these ideas. They set out to regain their lost power, and their once unknown age turned into a dark age. Since these were times when Church was in supreme power, confrontation was inevitable.
The effort is not only to expand range of thought, but to enrich it with wisdom that rejects paganism. Religion occupies a narrower place in new outlook on life than Dante and old outlook on life.
Humanists have less guilt and a lower level of virtue. This was common among most prominent Italian bishops. For example, Aeneas Silvius and Renaissance king himself Erasmus.
Lorenzo Valla was most powerful of Italian humanists and one who best demonstrated great changes taking place in human thought. He not only tried to be a critic, but, more rarely, he trained himself to be a historical critic.
He objected to believing writings of Dionysius of Areopagus, one of established theological positions then and much later. When Greeks at Council of Florence declared that they were not familiar with Apostles' Creed, Valla warned Latins not to call it work of apostles.
Vara served in Naples during war between Rome and Naples and advised Pope Eugenius to abandon usurped power on basis of fraud. He wore armor of new knowledge, and more than anyone else, he was able to convey this firm faith. This is a famous cultural exchange during Renaissance.
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