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On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

Patrick Colquhoun was one of most prominent critics of Old Poor Law in eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries, writing in 1815: "Human ingenuity was probably used more than any other branch of political economy, for betterment of poor.”

Colghorn's educational program reflected potential dangers of rapid urban growth, and prominent Scottish Enlightenment thinkers suchAdam Smith, Adam Ferguson, Lord Camus, Sir James Stewart and David Hume agree with Kirkhorn's views. concern.

Colghorn was one of main initiators of fight against poverty, which is central to modern health and social policy.

Until end of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, proportion of Britons living in urban and rural areas changed dramatically, with nearly half of the total population now living in cities.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

Colkhorn is direct about British political economist Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus's approach to population and government, using parliamentary election statistics to estimate total population of Britain and Ireland. “every thirty years (the period appointed for a new generation) at least seven million adults would join population of country if remedial measures were not taken.” And they do not receive any education.

In thirty years that have elapsed since Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, significant population growth has led to a "rapid degradation of morals of people and a loud call for enlightenment, lower classes of English society have been given special attention ".

In final revised edition of On Principles of People (1826), Malthus was a critic of state of public welfare in Europe in first half of nineteenth century, along with Hamburg. reformer Baron Kaspar von Vogt and Munich administrator and scholar Sir Benjamin Thompson formed a trio.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

Malthus supported discussions about poverty and social policy of Colkhorn, whose reputation in Europe owes much to German (1802) and French (1802) editions of Treatise on Metropolitan Police (1807), and by 1799 The treatise was expanded to six English editions.

Kirkuhorn, a Scottish political economist and social critic, was born after Adam Smith, who argued at end of Napoleonic Wars in early nineteenth century that poverty itself was inevitable because wealth is offspring of labor and labor can only come from wealth. poverty. Thus, poverty is main problem facing civil society.

Colghorn wanted to change British social policy, and he developed his early arguments in Poverty, repeating in 1815: “Wherever practicable, by regulation and proper encouragement, as many people as possible should be classified as productive workers. .”

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

For Colkhorn and other Enlightenment theorists, poverty was in fact a necessary condition for modernization of British industrial capitalism. However, this belief motivates him to support and improve situation of poor, especially through development of education.

Although Patrick Colquhoun was a private philanthropist, he believed that new concepts of social welfare and social policy should be carried out under auspices of national government, which is clearly reflected in his arguments in favor of reforming aid to poor.

The author argues that public education as central mechanism of social policy underlies Kirkuhorn's detailed vision of modernization of state. However, from point of view of the whole country, this scenario seems too big for private philanthropy.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

In 1806, Colkhorn explained: "The help of legislature was needed to bring plan into effect." Although efforts of philanthropists are valuable, even on a smaller scale they produce results, but best result is to be a national education system, accessible and acceptable to all segments of society.

Patrick Colquhoun's emphasis on education has sparked debate in UK.

Using his financial experience as a businessman in America (1761-1766) and Glasgow (1767-1789), Colkhorn describes vicious circle of inflation and currency devaluation and how this led to a sharp decline during French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. falling wages for poor.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

Colghorn's solution to educational problem was sublimated by Andrew Bell system of control that he used as guiding principle of Westminster Free School curriculum, which he often referred to Bell's basic approach to teaching and organization in his own writings and implementation at Westminster Free School in London.

Bell Excerpts from Sermons on Education of Poor (1807) and his sketches of a public institution for education of children of poor in morals, religious principles, and useful trades in Senate Library. , University of London (1808) was entrusted to Patrick Kircuhorne.

Bell included in his "Excerpts from Sermons on Education of Poor" (1807) statistical arguments of Cole Cuehorn in "Essay on Poverty" (1806) on lack of education of English poor.

Bell called Kirkhorn's On Poverty a fact about condition of people, morals, and improvement of lower classes.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

What underlies this closeness between two Scottish activists? Andrew Bell, like Colquhoun, tried to persuade Parliament and Church of England to cooperate in supporting national public education system.

During first decade of nineteenth century, they asked their readers:Should education of children and religion, which lack means of instruction, be left to casual guidance of individuals, societies, and parishes, or placed under legislative regulation and control? Down."

According to Bell and Kirkhorn, Scotland's national education system is best example of England in early nineteenth century. Bell shares Kirkhorn's view of how rapidly modernizing, industrializing, and urbanizing societies shun society, as well as Kirkhorn's comparative approach to evaluating the Scottish and English models.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

In 1808, Bell drew attention to a speech by a clerk to Scottish chancellor who was presiding over a jury in Glasgow. Bell concludes his "Essays on a National Institution for Education of Children of Poor" (or National Educational Plan, 1808) with approval by Scottish judges of advantages of state parochial education in Scotland.

Due to Britain's involvement in European wars and overseas colonial expansion during this period, development and deployment around world on an unprecedented scale demonstrates potential benefits that mass education can bring.

The public education organized around Bell's system of supervision was of particular importance, and Colkhorn strongly supported his Westminster Free School.

But most powerful spectacle of education and industry takes place at Royal Military Shelter in Chelsea, Bell says enthusiastically:Tailors and shoemakers have their classes there, and their Masters direct them to the Madras system. On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

Like Colkhorn, Andrew Bell was adamant that public education was needed to address Britain's growing industrialization.

Importantly, Colkhorn's lifelong focus on imperial politics deeply shaped his thinking and support for a number of social programs, including his emphasis on need for a state that could meet needs of a poor education system.

As stated in Colkhorn's early biographies, he began his business career in Virginia as an agent for Scottish Transatlantic Tobacco Company.

He was subsequently chief proponent of Westminster government's war against American colonial rebels and provision of reparations to those financially hurt by American Revolution.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

Colghorn in late 18th and early 19th centuries was indeed considered one of country's experts on world trade, largely colonial, but he also deserves credit as most influential person since Adam Smith. One of most influential people in Empire. criticism.

Historians and anthropologists are increasingly interested in colonial imperial states, which is of particular relevance to British history and research education. Many scholars argue that British colonial state was more authoritative (actually despotic) than British homeland.

However, it should be noted that there is a similarity between development of government in Britain on colonial periphery and in inland metropolis in that policy can be formulated in one place and then transferred to another.

Defenders of British colonial rule in India accept all of Colghorn's London proposals in The Metropolitan Police. However, ideas developed in colonies flowed back into Britain itself.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

For Patrick Colquhoun, colonial educational model, originally implemented under auspices of East India Company in Madras, was central to his teaching of English poor. The original model of mass education in England was a monitoring system.

Calkhorn was inspired by Andrew Bell's descriptions of his work in India, which in turn influenced Joseph Lancaster in London.

Calquhorn, advocating Westminster Free School model, was instrumental in bringing imperial ideas abroad, first adapted to colonial conditions and then transferred to British mainland.

The oversight system underpinned Westminster Free School model championed by Patrick Colechorn, which, as we have seen, was based on curriculum of fellow Scottish Anglican Andrew Bell and borrowed from English Quaker Joseph. Lancaster.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

"The people thank Reverend Andrew Bell for his genius, ability and tireless work, hero of Madras in East Indies." Colkhorn said excitedly: "He developed most enlightened educational plan for poor, and it is under this plan that Orchard Street Liberty School will open as scheduled.”

In conclusion, Patrick Colquhoun, like contemporary historians of era, considers late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to be a pivotal period that changed world.

Colghorn recounts past quarter century in his stunning treatise on wealth, power and resources of British Empire, through detailed statistical estimates of wealth and population, tremendous changes have taken place at end of French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

According to Colkhorn, UK seized an unprecedented opportunity to become one of world's hegemons.

Britain now had great economic and military power and was able to spread Britain's nascent industrial capitalism and institutions around world through its dominance of nineteenth century international system and its geopolitical status as a major colonial empire.

Reflecting on his intellectual connections to Scottish Enlightenment, emerging discipline of political economy, Patrick Colquhoun was one of the earliest and most influential proponents of public education in England.

On concept of poverty during British Industrial Revolution

Although Colkhorn's detailed proposals are found in widely circulated works, such as his New System of Education for Workers, published in 1806, though not an immediate implementation, they represent a very important legacy. it helped shape state in support and control of public education as a key tool for social policy and nation building.

At heart of Colghorn's educational goals is inculcation of work discipline and imperial loyalty in midst of a quarter century of global wars and socio-economic change. His new educational system was designed to promote development of society, industry and people.

In first decade of nineteenth century, as founding vice-principal of Westminster Free School in London, Colkhorn attempted to directly realize these educational goals and popularized this educational model in his writings.

Literary reference: Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776)

Malthus' theory of population (1826)

Excerpt from Andrew Bell's sermon on education of poor (1807)

Patrick Colkhorn's New System of Education for Laborers (1806)

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