Northeast China is an important part of China. Historically, northeast region stretched from Daxing'an Mountains in west, Waixingan Road in north, Bohai Sea and Shanhaiguan in south, Korean Peninsula and Sakhalin Island in east, covering an area of more than 2.5 million square kilometers. In ancient times, Northeast had a relatively cold climate, so social development was not as good as in Central Plains. However, Northeast still holds an important place in Chinese history. ethnic groups in Northeast. Therefore, as a Chinese, you should have a clearer understanding of history of Northeast China.1. Pre-Qin period: inhabitants of Hongshan culture created Yin civilization of ruins
The Northeast region is located in transition zone stretching from mainland China to Siberia and Americas, so it was a transit point for ancient human migration. Historically, Tungus, Dunya and other ethnic groups crossed here, fishing, hunting, agricultural, nomadic and other ethnic groups merged here. The earliest human settlement in Northeast China is Qianguo Palace in Jilin 1 million years ago, followed by Miaohoushan culture 50 years ago and Jinnyushan and Pigeon Cave cultures 300,000 years ago. Late Homo sapiens sites in Northeast China include Qingtoushan people, Yushu people, Antu people, Harbin people, and Qianyang people.
After entering Neolithic Age, Shenyang Xinle culture appeared in Northeast China, Changxin Nanshan City in Da'an County, Jilin Province, Xiaozhushan culture in Liaodong Peninsula, Xishagang culture in Hailar, Angangxi culture, Xingkailu culture in Mishan, Zhaohe culture Xiaonanshan culture , Changchun clan tribe, Daqingtala Naiman banner site, Neolithic site in lower reaches of Huolin River, Hongshan culture in Xiliao River, etc. Among them, Hongshan culture and Xiajiadian culture are representatives of northeastern culture. A large number of products from jade and even a few bronzes. According to archaeological research, Shang Dynasty in Central Plains was founded by founder of Hongshan-Xiajiadian culture. Around 16th century BC, Xiajiadian people moved south and entered Yellow River basin, and Xia dynasty was destroyed and Shang dynasty was founded.
Yin Jade Ruins
After decline of Shang dynasty, survivors of Shang dynasty were divided into two branches, one remained in Yellow River basin, and Western Zhou dynasty divided Song, Zheng, Wei, Lu, Qi, Yang and others. countries to govern old places of Shang Dynasty and survivors of Shang Dynasty. Under leadership of Jizi, one branch retreated to northeast. Since then, to northeast. After decline of Shang Dynasty, these ethnic groups adopted canonization of Zhou Dynasty by name, and Zhou Dynasty also handed over Zhao Gong to Yandi to prevent them from going south. "Zuo Zhuan" writes: "Also Sushen, Yang, Bo, and Wu Beitu."
Distribution of ancient clans
During Spring and Autumn period, Guzhu and Shanrong were destroyed by Duke Huan Qi and became part of State of Yan. During Warring States period, Yang State expanded to northeast. In 300 BC Qin Kai, general of Yang state, defeated Donghu, occupied Liaodong region, founded counties of Shanggu, Yuyang, Yubeiping, Liaoxi, and Liaodong, and built Great Wall. The climate of Eastern Liaodong belongs to warm temperate zone, which is suitable for agricultural production. Thus, Liaodong region became stronghold of Central Plains Dynasty, which controlled entire northeast. In 226 BC The Qin state captured Jicheng, capital of Yang state, and Prince Dan retreated to city of Liaodong. In 223 BC Qin captured Liaodong, and state of Yan perished. So counties in Liaodong belonged to Qin dynasty.2. "Three Kingdoms Era" in northeast China.
After founding of Han Dynasty, Lu Wang received title of King of Yan and ruled over land of Yan. In 196 BC. Lu Wang and Chen Xi rebelled, and Liu Bang's northern expedition forced Lu Wang to flee to Huns. At this time, General Wei Mang of Yang State led rest of his forces to Korean Peninsula. Two years later, Weiman expelled Ji family, became king of Joseon, and founded "Joseon of Wei". During reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, there were conflicts between Weimang Korea and Han Dynasty. In 107 B.C. The Weiman Dynasty was destroyed by Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, and then Han Dynasty established four counties here: Lelang, Xuantu, Zhenfan and Lintong, which in history were called "the four counties of Han Dynasty". .
After death of Weimang and Joseon, Han Dynasty penetrated to northeast, and ethnic groups such as Huiyu, Fuyu, and Susheng in Heilongjiang River basin and Three Han (Mahan, Chenhan, and Bihan) in southern part of Korean Peninsula Tributary links with Han Dynasty have been established. According to ancient historical records, all ethnic groups of Northeast China have always been good at archery. During this period, Fuyu kingdom became most powerful country in Northeast China. According to historical records, "the country is rich and wealthy", "the country is two thousand miles away, and households are 80,000 people." The Three Kingdoms Biography of Fuyu says, “Fuyu is north of Great Wall and a thousand miles from Xuanyuan. It is connected to Goguryeo to south, Baolou to east, and Xianbei to west. There is weak water in north, and only two thousand miles to it.
At end of Western Han Dynasty, civil strife broke out in Buyeo, which had a huge impact on Northeast. In 37 BC Zhu Meng, a member of Fuyu royal family, traveled south to establish kingdom of Goguryeo (now Xinbin County, Liaoning Province). In AD 53, Goguryeo defined 5 tribes as 5 provinces and officially entered national arena. Subsequently, Goguryeo continued to expand and gradually formed a large northeastern country that was "connected with North Korea and Huiying in south, Woju in east and Puyu in north, with a place of two thousand miles." At end of Han Dynasty, Goguryeo moved its capital to city of Marudu (Jian). In 1st century BC, Goguryeo branch entered Mahan region of Korean peninsula and founded Baekje country. In addition, in 57 BC. Jin Han founded kingdom of Silla. This is so-called "Three Kingdoms" in Korean history.
After Eastern Han Dynasty, Central Plains Dynasty fell into many years of schism, which created conditions for expansion of Goguryeo. But its expansion has not been smooth. During Wei period, Guan Qiujian, governor of Youzhou, once captured Wangdu. After retreat of army, Wei Goguryeo returned to country, Lelang County. However, Goguryeo was repeatedly attacked by Xianbei people. In 342, Qianyang regime established by Xianbei people captured Wangdu again, and Goguryeo's expansion suffered a major setback.
After King Little Beast Ling of Goguryeo inherited throne, he began to lead Goguryeo to become stronger. He studied culture of Central Plains, promulgated laws, built an army, founded Taixue, and introduced Buddhism. After that, Goguryeo went to Qiangsheng, King Haotai conquered 64 cities in Fuyu, kingdom of Fuyu perished, and since then Goguryeo dominated northeast. In 427, King Changshou moved his capital to Pyongyang to control two countries of Baekje and Silla, while at same time confronting Mohe, Khitan, and Northern Wei (Xianbei). After its heyday, Goguryeo also experienced civil strife and gradually fell into decline. In 551, Baekje and Silla jointly attacked Goguryeo, and Goguryeo retreated from Han River Basin. Since then, Silla has occupied Han River Basin, and there has been a brawl between Baekje and Silla. Among three countries on Korean peninsula, Baekje is weakest, so Baekje allied with Japan, hoping to use Japan's strength to fight against Silla and Goguryeo.
Murals of Goguryeo
After founding of Sui Dynasty, Goguryeo was constantly at war. In 598, Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty sent an army of 300,000 to attack Goguryeo, but was soundly defeated. After that, Emperor Sui Yang "conquered Korea three times", but all failed, and a large-scale uprising broke out in country. After founding of Tang Dynasty, Tang Taizong decided to ally with Silla to fight against Silla and Baekje. After Tang Taizong and Tang Gaozong continued to send troops, they finally destroyed Baekje in 660, and Tang Dynasty established Wangjin and other five capitals. ; Destroy Goguryeo. Thereafter, Tang Dynasty established Andong Protectorate in northeast, and "Three Kingdoms Era" in Korean Peninsula came to an end.Thirdly, from unification of state of Bohai to emergence of state of Liao.
After demise of Goguryeo, Silla gradually occupied Korean Peninsula, bounded by Datong River and Tang Dynasty, and became first regime in history to unite peninsula, created by "Korean nationality". Silla carried out Sinicization reforms in country, established a local county system, established Sinology, and promoted Confucianism. In 768, King Gyeongdeok died, and aristocratic power of Silla increased, while Silla gradually declined.
At same time that Silla was in decline, rise of Balhae kingdom in north began. During Sui and Tang dynasties in northeastern Mohe region, people called Sushen, Fuyu, Yilou, and Wuji. Donghu's branch is called Shiwei. Mohe is divided into Baishan Mohe, Bohai Mohe and Heishui Mohe, etc., and Shiwei is also divided into two parts. Those that are common around Greater Khingan mountains are called shiwei, and those that are common in upper reaches of Liaohe River are called kidan and si. After Tang Dynasty occupied Liaodong, Khitan, Xi, etc. surrendered to Tang Dynasty, and Tang Dynasty established Rao Le Dudu Mansion and Seonmo Dudu Mansion here. By time of Wu Zetian's reign, Khitan had fallen out of control of Tang Dynasty, forcing power of Tang Dynasty to gradually withdraw from northeast.
Map of Tang Dynasty
In 698, Da Zuorong, leader of Mohe at end of sumo, founded Zhen Kingdom on Mount Dongmou (now Dunhua, Jilin Province). In 713, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty gave Da Zuorong title of "King of Bohai County" and "Captain of Huhan Prefecture", and he has since been renamed Bohai State. The people of Balhae are called "Goryeo Bijong", which comes from Sumomohe Goguryeo tribe. The Bohai Kingdom and Tang Dynasty fought peacefully, and after Anshi rebellion, Bohai Kingdom occupied Liaodong territory. In 737, King Wen of Bohai ascended throne and actively promoted Han culture in country, imitated laws and regulations of Tang dynasty, established three provinces and six ministries in central government, and five capitals, prefectures, and counties in local area. In 793, King Wen of Bohai died, and Bohai state fell into decline for a while. In 818, King Bohai Xuan came to throne, and Bohai state began to enter its heyday. King Xuan defeated Silla and forced Silla Datong to build Great Wall, Xiang conquered Mohe tribes such as Funye, Yulou and Yuexi, defeated Heishui Mohe and almost unified northeastern region. The Bohai Sea became "prosperous country of East Sea" in northeast.
The Bohai Kingdom fell into decline at end of Tang Dynasty and was replaced by Liao Kingdom. The Khitan tribe is a branch of Shiwei, and Shiwei is also a branch of Xianbei. During Southern and Northern Dynasties, Khitans frequently fought against Goguryeo. During Sui and Tang dynasties, Khitan surrendered to Turks. After Tang dynasty defeated Eastern Turks, Khitan surrendered to Tang dynasty. During reign of Wu Zetian, there was a war between Khitans and Tang Dynasty, and since then they have escaped from control of Tang Dynasty. By time of Five Dynasties, Khitan people were becoming stronger and stronger. In 907 Yelü Abaoji became khan, abolished "military democracy" through war, and established a hereditary system. In 916, Yelu Abaoji united eight Khitan tribes, proclaimed himself emperor, and founded country as "Great Khitan Kingdom", which was later changed to "Liao Kingdom".
After founding of Liao Kingdom, Han Chinese such as Han Yanhui, Han Zhigu, Kang Moji, and Lu Wenjin were reused to build cities and give importance to agriculture. In 918, Yelu Abaoji established Linhuang Mansion (now Bahrain) as his capital, and later created Khitan characters. In 925, Yelü Abaoji conquered Bohai Sea, occupied Liaodong and Heilongjiang basins, and unified Northeast. Since then, Liao Kingdom has continued to attack Central Plains to south. In 936, Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty helped Shi Jingtang attack Later Tang Dynasty and established Later Jin Dynasty. The Liao kingdom received sixteen Yanyun prefectures. The sixteen prefectures of Yanyun became base for further travel south. In 947, Khitan army captured Kaifeng, and Later Jin dynasty fell. After Northern Song Dynasty unified Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, there were many wars around struggle for sixteen prefectures of Yanyun, but Northern Song Dynasty was mostly defeated. The prosperity of Liao kingdom continued for a long time until it was destroyed by Jin kingdom in 1125.4. The sudden rise of Jurchens
The Jurchens are names of Sushen, Yilou, Wuji, and Mohe in Song Dynasty. The History of Jin Age records that “the first of gold came from Mohe family. Mohe's original name is Wuji. Wuji is also ancient Su Shendi. In Yuan and Wei dynasties, there were seven parts of Wuji: Sui called Mohe; at beginning of Tang was Heishui Mohe, Mohe at end of millet.” Among them, "mature Jurchens" are in Liaodong region, and "sheng Jurchens" live in Heilongjiang region. Sheng Jurchen is Heishui Mohe of Tang Dynasty. During 11th century, Wanyan Department of Shennyuzhen gradually strengthened. In 1113, Wanyan Aguda succeeded Li and then unified various Jurchen ministries and established the Kingdom of Jin in 1115.
In 1125, Jin Kingdom destroyed Liao Kingdom and occupied most of land of Liao Kingdom; in 1126, Jin Kingdom went south to attack Song Dynasty, creating "Jingkang Change", and Northern Song Dynasty perished. Since then, Jin Kingdom and Southern Song Dynasty have been limited to Qinling Mountains and Huaihe River. The Jin Kingdom attached great importance to agricultural production in its internal affairs, established an official system based on systems of Liao and Song dynasties, introduced a state and county system in Han area, and imposed restrictions on Meng'an Mou. in Jurchen region (a combination of warriors and farmers, predecessor of Eight Banners system). During Wang Yanliang's period, sinization policy was actively promoted, capital was moved to Yanjing, and administrative division was divided into fourteen roads. Wang Yanliang tried to unite country, but failed due to civil strife. Since then, Jin kingdom has experienced prosperity of Jin Shizong period and Jin Zhangzong period, its national power is very strong, it controls North Korea and submits to Mongolia and Xixia.
At end of Jin Dynasty, Mongolia became stronger and got rid of control of Jin Dynasty. During this time, Jin kingdom was also in decline, and in order to avoid Mongol aggression, Jin dynasty moved its capital to Kaifeng. Since then, Jurchen and Khitan tribes in northeast have also broken free from control of Jin kingdom. After collapse of Jin kingdom, Mongol Yuan implemented a new ethnic policy for Jin kingdom: Jurchens who remained in northeast "the same as Mongols", and Jurchens who entered Central Plains and underwent Sinicization, were called "Han", about a third of whom were Jurchens. Era, integrated into Han nationality. To rule Northeast, Yuan Dynasty established Liaoyang Province and the Marshal's Mansion.
At beginning of Ming Dynasty, Jurchen tribe gradually surrendered to Ming Dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang established Liaodong capital at Liaoning, and Yongle Emperor established Nuergang capital in Heilongjiang River basin to govern Jurchen tribe. However, during Xuande period, Nuer Gandu division was abolished and Ming dynasty lost control of Jurchen tribe. During reign of Emperor Yingzong of Ming Dynasty, Jurchen tribe began to invade Ming Dynasty. During Jiajing period, Ming Dynasty built Great Wall to resist invasion of Jurchen tribe. During Wanli period, Li Chengliang was sent to guard Liaodong. The Jurchen tribe during Ming Dynasty was divided into Jianzhou Jurchen, Haixi Jurchen, and Donghai Jurchen (wild Jurchen).
In 1583, Nurhaci created an army that had "less than 100 soldiers, and only 13 soldiers." and creation of state of Jurchens was announced, they were officially united and "Jurchen Kingdom" was created. Subsequently, Nurhati launched a war of unification against Jurchen Haixi, and Ming dynasty sent troops to intervene. In 1616, Nurhati announced establishment of "Golden Kingdom", known in history as "Later Jin", and officially fought against Ming Dynasty. In 1619, he defeated a 100,000-strong Ming army at Battle of Sarhu and then united Haixi Jurchens. In 1621, Nurhaci moved capital to Liaoyang.
In 1626, Huang Taiji came to throne and carried out many reforms. Politically, Ming Dynasty system was introduced and eight banner system was improved. Strengthen centralization of power and limit power of Manchu nobility; in economic terms, improve position of Han nationality in order to restore economic production; culturally establish an imperial examination system and translate Han books on a large scale. He conquered North Korea twice, Lindan Khan three times, occupied Monan Mongolia, defeated wild Jurchens four times, and annexed Heilongjiang River basin to his territory, leaving Shanhaiguan.
In 1644, Qing army entered pass and eventually occupied entire interior in 1664. Subsequently, Kangxi Emperor crushed San Francisco uprising and regained Taiwan, defeated Tsarist Russia and signed Treaty of Nerchinsk, China, and has since completed great work of unifying East Asian continent. The Qing dynasty built three major mansions in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Shengjing in northeast.