In recent years, some thoughts about khanism have appeared, even thoughts that entry of Manchus into customs is not a change of dynasty, but death of China. This view stems from a misunderstanding of ancient Chinese history and historical origins of northeastern ethnic groups. The ancestors of Manchus were Sushen, Fuyu, Wuji, Mohe, Jurchen, and others. They had different names in different periods. They once established Fuyu, Goguryeo, Balhe, Jin, Hojin and other regimes in Northeast. In addition to Manchus, there are many other ethnic groups in Northeast China that once played an important role in Chinese history.1. The creation of Shang Dynasty originated from Hongshan culture in Northeast China.
Before Western Zhou Dynasty, there were no such names as Dongyi, Sizhong, Beidi and Nanman in China, but only Yi, Di, Rong, Qiang and Man (Miao). For example, Qiang is Shang collective name for Western ethnic groups, while Yi is common name for Eastern Xia and Zhou ethnic groups. The word Yi means a man carrying a bow on his back. "Xuowen Dabu" also says, "Yi, a man from East." Indeed, people of Yi in east are very good at archery. In this country, there were famous archery figures such as Daiyi, Houyi and Han Yun. The ethnic groups in northeast also belong to barbarians, and they are all very good archers. Today's Koreans belong to ancient branch of barbarians, and they are very good archers in Olympics.
Qiang came from west, Yi came from east, Central Plains is battlefield
The Yi people created brilliant Dawenkou and Longshan cultures in Shandong Peninsula, and Hongshan and Xiajiadian cultures in Western Liao basin. Archaeologists discovered that Yinxu culture originated from Hongshan-Xiajiadian culture after comparing Hongshan and Xiajiadian jade with Yinxu site. According to records of ancient historical materials, people of Shang Dynasty also came from Northeast. The Xunzi Chengxiang Pian says: "King Qixuan, who was born in Zhaoming, lived in stone and moved to Shang." It can be seen that was earliest residence of Shang Dynasty people at Whetstone. In addition, "Huainanzi Yan Xingxun" said, "Whetstone comes from Liao." Gao Yu's commentary states: "Whetstone, name of mountain, is located outside Great Wall and comes from Liao River." "Shui Jing Zhu" also said, "The Liaoshui, which is also said to come out of stone mountain, flows east from outside Great Wall and goes straight to west of Wangping County in east of Liaodong... bends and flows southward, and enters sea." It can be seen that whetstone is birthplace of Liaohe River. It is located in Xiliao District, which is an area of Hongshan culture and Xiajiadian culture. In addition, in "Spring and autumn period of sixteen kingdoms. Qian Yang Lu" is written: "The former Gaoxin family roamed seashore, leaving several sons to destroy Yue, to live in north of Yi and live in wild of Zimeng." In addition, Minutes of Reading Fangyu's History states, "Jimengchuan is in northwest of Yingzhou...between Qin and Han dynasties, Donghu was in Zimengchuan." It can be seen that Zimeng is also located in area of the Xiliao River.
Longshan culture: home of Chinese dragon culture
What is even more amazing is that during archeology of tombs of Shang Dynasty, it was discovered that hairstyles of people of Shang Dynasty were mostly braided. Judging by depictions of unearthed cultural relics, there were many styles of hair braiding for men during Shang Dynasty. Some have their hair pulled up, braided, and then hanging down to back of their heads; Braided hair of ancient Chinese is mainly distributed in Northeast region. In addition to Jurchens and Manchus, Fuyu and Goguryeo peoples also live here.
Shang dynasty hairstyle
In fact, it has long been assumed in field of Chinese historiography that people of Shang Dynasty came from northeast. As early as 1930s, renowned historian Fu Xinyang wrote Yi Xia Dong Dong Shuo, in which he put forward view that Shang clan originated in northeast and settled in Bohai Sea and ancient Yanzhou. In 1978, Jin Jingfang published The Origin of Shang Culture in Northeast of My Country and suggested that Qi lived in north and Zhaoming lived at source of Liaoshui, which is now Baicha Mountain in Hexigten Banner, Zhaongyao Damen, Inner Mongolia. In 1980s, Gan Zhigeng and others published "Shangxian Emerging from Yuyan Theory" and believing that "only in Hongshan culture can we find gene, origin, and origin of Shangxian culture."
Shan Dynasty Warrior
After decline of Shang Dynasty, most of them remained in Central Plains. The Western Zhou Dynasty established Song, Zheng, Wei, Lu, Qi, Yang and other countries in old Shang Dynasty site to rule Shang Dynasty survivors. Some merchants have returned to northeast. For example, Jizi brought survivors from Yin and Shang dynasties back to Liaodong and North Korea and established Jizi in North Korea. In northeast, there are kingdoms of Shanrong and Guzhu among old forces of Yin and Shang dynasties. Among them, Guzhu Kingdom was a country in early years of Shang Dynasty. During Western Zhou Dynasty, these old clans of Shang Dynasty, one by one, expressed their surrender to Western Zhou Dynasty, so there was a saying "Sushen, Yang, Bo and Wubeituye." Fu Xinyang, a famous historian of Republic of China period, said that "the prosperity of Shang came from northeast, and death of Shang also went to northeast."
Statue of Jizi2. Xianbei's Entry into Central Plains: Fresh Blood for Han
Since Han Dynasty, Fuyu Kingdom, Goguryeo, Baekje and other regimes established by Fuyu people have appeared in Northeast, but their sphere of influence is limited to Northeast and did not extend to Central Plains. The influence of Xianbei people spread throughout country. The Xianbei people first lived in Greater Khingan Mountains and historians believe they belong to Dongyi or Donghu peoples. "Suoyin Historical Records" quotes Hu Guangyun of Eastern Han Dynasty as "Xianbei, Donghu is a different species" and Wei Zhao of Three Kingdoms as "Xianbei, Dongyi Country". However, Donghu also lived in area of the Siliao River for a long time and belonged to northeastern ethnic group. During Eastern Han Dynasty, Xianbei people became powerful. In 91 AD, Eastern Han dynasty defeated Northern Huns, and Xianbei seized opportunity to occupy entire desert and become new masters here. At end of Eastern Han dynasty, Tang Shihuai unified Xianbei ministries, created a powerful nomadic country, and opposed Han dynasty. But soon Xianbei broke up.
During Wei and Jin dynasties, Xianbei began to migrate around country, with Xianbei in east (Xianbei headquarters) being most active. They were divided into Murong Department, Yuwen Department, and Duan Department, occupying western Liaoning. Among them, Tuoba tribe, led by Tuoba Liwei, reached Monan and northern part of Shanxi, after which Bald tribe separated from Tuoba tribe and moved to Hexi corridor. There are also a large number of Xianbei people who have moved to Central Plains. At end of Western Jin Dynasty, national power declined, and "five random China" situation arose. During this time, countless minority regimes were established in Central Plains. Among them, Murong family of Xianbei established several regimes such as Qianyan, Houyan, Xiyang, and Nanyan; Tuoba Ugu of Hexi Xianbei founded Nanliang, Qifu tribe founded Xiqin, and Tuoba founded Daigo. In addition, Murong clan in northeast also migrated to Qinghai and established Tuyuhun Kingdom (313–663).
Xianbei costumes and hairstyles
In 398, King Tuobagui of Kingdom of Dai changed name of country to "Wei", which was known in history as Northern Wei Dynasty, and its capital was Pingcheng (Datong). By 439, Northern Wei dynasty had unified north, and China officially entered era of Northern and Southern Dynasties. After Tuoba family took over Central Plains, they implemented a land leveling system and economic rent adjustment, which contributed to economic development of north; politically, they established a political system and introduced a system of government soldiers based on bureaucratic system of Wei and Jin dynasties; in terms of culture, a sinization policy was carried out and Tuoba was changed to "yuan". During reign of Emperor Xiaowen, capital was moved to Luoyang, which was central plain of Dingding. In 534, Northern Wei dynasty split and western part was controlled by Yuwen family, which became Western Wei-Northern Zhou dynasty; eastern part was controlled by Gao family and became Eastern Wei-Northern Dynasty. Qi dynasty. In 577, Northern Zhou dynasty strengthened and unified north.
Emperor Xiaowen moved capital
The arrival of Xianbei in Central Plains had a huge impact on political corruption during Wei and Jin dynasties, added fresh blood to Han people, and hastened renaissance of China. The land leveling system, rent regulation system, and state military system established under northern dynasties passed on to early Tang dynasty. After that, Sui dynasty arose, uniting Northern and Southern dynasties. Later, Tang Dynasty with Xianbei blood established itself again, becoming pinnacle in ancient China.
The Xianbei people, who remained in northeast, experienced another division: north was called "shiwei", and south - Khitan and si. In addition, during Tang Dynasty, Bohai Kingdom also appeared in Northeast, which once unified Northeast. After fall of Tang Dynasty, Khitan people rebelled, established powerful Liao Kingdom, unified Northeast, and controlled Mongolian Highlands. However, Northern and Southern Yuan system established by Kingdom of Liao, with Northern Yuan to govern nomadic people and Southern Yuan to govern Han people, is a "one country, two systems" system. This system was later inherited and developed by Mongolia, Jin kingdom and Qing dynasty, which marked beginning of formation of a two-system empire (agricultural + nomadic) in China. After fall of Liao Kingdom, its royal family entered western regions under leadership of Yelui Dashi, established powerful Western Liao Kingdom, and promoted Chinese culture and Chinese characters. Later, "China" in Russian meant Khitan, and in Islamic world northern China was called "Kitan". In "Marco Polo's Travels" China was also divided into two parts, Khitan and southern people.
Sinification of Khitans
The Mongols who rose in desert later belonged to Shiwei branch. The "Old Tang Book" is called "Menwu Shiwei". Later, they gradually migrated to desert, founded a powerful Mongolia and almost conquered entire Eurasian continent. In 1271, Kublai Khan founded Yuan dynasty, and in 1279 destroyed Southern Song dynasty and unified East Asia. In view of complex composition of Mongolia, there is no need to include separately northeastern ethnic groups here.3. Jurchens and Qing Dynasty: creation of territory of China.
The Jurchens are ethnic groups that have long lived in Heilongjiang River Basin, that is, Sushen, Fuyu, Wuji, and Mohe in past. The History of Jin Age records that “the first of gold came from Mohe family. Mohe's original name is Wuji. Wuji is also ancient Su Shendi. In Yuan and Wei dynasties, there were seven parts of Wuji: Sui called Mohe; early Tang, was Heishui Mohe, Sumo Mohe." The name Jurchen appeared in Song Dynasty, and it was for them name of Liao people, and sometimes it was also written as "Nvzhi". During period when Liao kingdom ruled over Jurchens, more progressive Jurchens in Liaodong area were called "mature Jurchens" and were administered by prefectures and counties; those in Heilongjiang that were in a state of fishing and hunting were called "sheng jurchen" and were controlled by prison system. In fact, adult girl is actually a former resident of Bohai State, and child girl is actually Heishui Mohe.
Wang Yan Aguda
At end of Liao Dynasty, Wanyan Department of Shennuzhen emerged. In 1115, Wanyan Aguda united various Jurchen tribes and established Jin Kingdom with Ning (Harbin) as its capital. Aguda subsequently joined forces with Song dynasty to attack Liao kingdom. In 1125, Liao kingdom perished. In process of annihilating Liao Dynasty, Jin Kingdom saw that Song Dynasty army was weak in combat capability, so it prepared to destroy Song Dynasty. In 1126, Jin army marched straight into Kaifeng and attacked Kaifeng, capital of Northern Song Dynasty. In 1153, Wang Yanliang, King of Hailing, who was trying to destroy Southern Song Dynasty, moved his capital to Yanjing and formally established Central Plains. In a strong and prosperous period, Southern Song Dynasty, Western Xia Dynasty, and Mongol tribes bowed their heads to Jin Dynasty.
Politically, Jin dynasty imitated Liao and Song dynasties to create a complete bureaucratic system and establish a prefectural system; in Jurchen region, Meng'an Mouke system was introduced, which united soldiers and farmers, which was predecessor of later eight banner system; in economic terms, agricultural production was actively developing; culturally, a high degree of Sinicization was encouraged, an imperial examination system was introduced, and schools were opened. In late Jin Dynasty, Jurchens who settled in Central Plains were mostly Sinicized, so after Yuan Dynasty destroyed Jin Dynasty, they could no longer distinguish themselves from Han people, so they were collectively called "Han people". .
After fall of Jin Dynasty, Mongolia established Liaoyang Province and Eastern Marshal's Mansion in northeast to govern northeastern Jurchen region. At beginning of Ming Dynasty, Jurchen tribe gradually surrendered to Ming Dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang established Liaodong capital at Liaoning, and Yongle Emperor established Nuergang capital in Heilongjiang River basin to govern Jurchen tribe. However, during Xuande period, Nuer Gandu division was abolished and Ming dynasty lost control of Jurchen tribe. During reign of Emperor Yingzong of Ming Dynasty, Jurchen tribe began to invade Ming Dynasty. During Jiajing period, Ming Dynasty built Great Wall to resist invasion of Jurchen tribe. During Wanli period, Li Chengliang was sent to guard Liaodong. The Jurchen tribe during Ming Dynasty was divided into Jianzhou Jurchen, Haixi Jurchen, and Donghai Jurchen (wild Jurchen).
In 1583, Nurhaci created an army that had "less than 100 soldiers, and only 13 soldiers." and creation of state of Jurchens was announced, they were officially united and "Jurchen Kingdom" was created. Subsequently, Nurhati launched a war of unification against Jurchen Haixi, and Ming dynasty sent troops to intervene. In 1616, Nurhati announced establishment of "Golden Kingdom", known in history as "Later Jin", and officially fought against Ming Dynasty. In 1619, he defeated a 100,000-strong Ming army at Battle of Sarhu and then united Haixi Jurchens. In 1621, Nurhaci moved capital to Liaoyang.
In 1626, Huang Taiji came to throne and carried out many reforms. Politically, Ming Dynasty system was introduced, Eight Banners system was improved, and Jurchens were renamed Manchuria. Strengthen centralization of power and limit power of Manchu nobility; in economic terms, improve position of Han nationality in order to restore economic production; culturally establish an imperial examination system and translate Han books on a large scale. He conquered North Korea twice, Lindan Khan three times, occupied Monan Mongolia, defeated wild Jurchens four times, and annexed Heilongjiang River basin to his territory, leaving Shanhaiguan.
The Qing Dynasty during reign of Huang Taiji
In 1644, Qing army entered pass, "the tripod of Yanjing hereby decides to suspend China." Eventually, by 1664 all interior spaces were occupied. Subsequently, Kangxi Emperor crushed San Francisco uprising and regained Taiwan, defeated Tsarist Russia and signed Treaty of Nerchinsk, China, and has since completed great work of unifying East Asian continent. The Qing Dynasty was first dynasty to designate "China" as name of a country (the previous China was a regional concept referring to Central Plains), and China has been our official country name ever since. At same time, Qing dynasty also redefined concept of Chinese nation. Yongzheng said: “Since ancient times, China has been united, and its territory cannot be far away. All tribes on far side of Mongolia belong to territory. The great fortune of Chinese subjects is to expand territory of China. How can there be a difference between Huayi and foreign countries!" The entire territory of Manchu, Han, Mongolian, Hui and Tibetan ethnic groups constitutes one large republic. Of China. "It can be seen that Qing dynasty laid foundation of territory of China.
Summarizing, ethnic groups in northeast ruled Central Plains four times, namely Shang Dynasty, Xianbei (Northern Dynasty), Jin Dynasty, and Qing Dynasty. be five times. In addition, ethnic groups in northeast also established important ethnic regimes such as Jizi Korea, Guzhu Kingdom, Fuyu Kingdom, Goguryeo, Baekje Kingdom, Balhae Kingdom, Tuyuhun, Seven of Sixteen Kingdoms, Liao Kingdom, and Siliao. story. The Huaxia, Han, and northeastern ethnic groups also merged many times. Merchants, Xianbei, Khitans, Jurchens, and Manchus integrated in large numbers into Han people, as well as cultures of Shang Dynasty, Xianbei, Jurchens, and Manchus. to Han nationality. Therefore, we can say that you have me, and you are in me, and we are all Chinese.