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The first lesson of latest high school history textbook: origin of Chinese civilization and the early state

A new textbook published by Ministry re-adopts method of compiling a general history. So first lesson is to introduce primitive society and Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, total 8 pages, and length is very objective. There are three titles in total: Ancient People and Cultural Remains of Stone Age, From Tribes to Nations, and Shang and Western Zhou.

1. Ancient human and cultural remains of Stone Age

Firstly, article introduces difference between Paleolithic era and Neolithic era. The tools of Paleolithic era are mostly stone tools, while main tools of Neolithic era are Neolithic tools. The text introduces most typical Paleolithic human sites found in China - Yuanmou Man and Peking Man. Then give a map of distribution of Paleolithic sites and ask students to think about its distribution (mainly on both sides of river).

The article does not say if Yuanmou people are ancestors of today's Chinese. However, quotation at beginning mentions "spade-shaped incisors", a type of teeth commonly wielded by yellow race in Asia. The textbook doesn't say where human race came from, which is different from old textbook. I remember an old textbook that said Asia was one of origins of man.

The second paragraph introduces situation in Neolithic era. The Neolithic Age began about 10,000 years ago, mostly using polished stone tools. People in this era had already begun to practice primitive agriculture, raised cattle, built villages, used pottery, and their production and life tended to be stable. More than 10,000 Neolithic relics have been discovered in China, which are widely distributed and gradually develop towards a pluralistic unity and core of Central Plains. The attached picture is of Jiangxi Wannian Xianren Cave, which is earliest remains of rice paddies in world.

The third paragraph introduces major Neolithic cultures in China 6,000 years ago, such as Yangshao culture, Dawenkou culture, and Hemudu culture. This era was a period of prosperity for matrilineal clans. The attached image is a map of restoration of Jiangzhai Village in Yangshao Culture, Shaanxi Province.

5000 years ago, Neolithic era in China entered a late stage - era of patrilineal clans. In this era, Longshan culture arose and united Central Plains. A representative cultural relic is "eggshell pottery". Neolithic cultures elsewhere are represented by Hongshan culture in northeast and Liangzhu culture in southeast. They all had beautiful jade objects, large altars and temples. The attached images include "Schematic Diagram of Expansion Area of ​​the Liangzhu Ancient City Wall", "Altars, Stone Tombs and Goddess Temple at Hongshan Niuheliang Cultural Site", "Panorama of Taoxi Monument and No. 2001 Tomb Discovered in Xiangfeng, Shanxi". "

It must be recalled that Liangzhu culture is still in Neolithic era and has not yet entered era of civilization. The fifth paragraph introduces process of development of primitive society, which went through three stages: primitive group, matriarchal-clan and patrilineal-clan. In era of patrilineal clans, division of society began and private property arose. Tribal tribes or tribal confederations were formed. Human beings began transition to era of civilization, and location of Liangzhu is a representative place of entire transitional state. The "History" of textbook mentions: "Liangzhu culture and Taoxi culture are rich in connotations and are considered original form of country".

2. From tribe to nation

This chapter mainly presents early forms of government recorded in literature from Five Emperors period to Xia Dynasty. The first paragraph briefly introduces deeds of Yanhuang, Yao, and Shun, and emphasizes each tribe's selective method of "renunciation." In essence, abdication system is a military democracy, a situation in which nation is about to enter state of state.

The second paragraph introduces Xia Dynasty. First, Daiyu was leader of Xia clan, who accepted Shun's renunciation and became leader of tribal alliance. Around 2070 BC (data from Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, which is actually unscientific) established earliest dynasty in China. After Dai's death, his son Qi succeeded to throne, and system of succession replaced system of renunciation. The article briefly introduces political system of Xia dynasty, recorded in literature. In "Focus of Learning", some additions to knowledge were made and historical materials such as "Shanshu", "Book of Songs" and "Xia Benji" were mentioned, but it was also said that there are no historical facts, such as oracle bone inscriptions and bronze inscriptions were found. At end of second paragraph, it is mentioned that Erlitou site is "very likely to be remains of the Xia culture", and there is no clear conclusion.

3. Shang and Western Zhou

The Western Zhou Dynasty of Shang Dynasty contains more material. The first three paragraphs introduce Shang Dynasty. The first paragraph is just a sentence: “About 1600 B.C. Tang, chief of Shang tribe in lower reaches of Yellow River, overthrew Xia dynasty and founded Shang dynasty." The second paragraph presents archaeological evidence of Shang Dynasty - location of ruins of Yin and inscriptions on bones of oracle. The third paragraph introduces political system of Shang Dynasty. The more important of these is internal and external service system, which is an early system of enfeoffment. Shan. The sphere of cultural influence of Shang Dynasty, mentioned in article, "to sea in east, Longshan in west, Jianghan in south, and Yanshan in north." Please note that this is not area mentioned here.

There are four passages representing Western Zhou Dynasty. The first paragraph tells about establishment of Western Zhou dynasty. "In 1046 BC, leader of Zhou clan, King Wu of Zhou, led his troops to attack Shang Dynasty. The Shang Dynasty was replaced by Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty established its capital at Haoyang, which in history was called Western Zhou Dynasty" The accompanying image shows a bronze vessel "Li Gui" and corresponding inscription "Wu Wang conquered merchants, only Jiazi, Sui Ding, Kehunsu dynasty had merchants..." This is earliest historical record of Wu Wang's defeat of Zhou.

Then, enfeoffment system and patriarchal clan system of Western Zhou Dynasty are introduced, which eventually formed a hierarchical structure in shape of a pyramid. The accompanying figure, Schematic Diagram of Enfeoffment in Western Zhou Dynasty, shows distribution of major feudal states in Western Zhou dynasty. The content of patriarchal system is mainly found in "History", which states: "The patriarchal system is internal system of clan organization with consanguinity, and eldest son's inheritance system is strictly observed. The king of Zhou is a great clan, and princes are a small clan. This is Dazong and Qing Dafu is Xiaozong. By analogy, there are layers of difference that make up combination of political power and clan power."

Then talk about decline and fall of Western Zhou Dynasty. Among them are reasonable explanations for "Chinese riots" and "Republican administration." The old textbooks of past held that Chinese riots were slave rebellions, and Republican administration was run jointly by nobles. Now this has changed, and it is believed that Chinese popular riots were nobles who expelled king, and republican administration is "Gongbohe was elected regent", and republic is an abbreviation for Gongbohe, not a republican system. Finally, in 771 BC. "The nomadic people of Northwest, Rong dog, took advantage of internal unrest in Western Zhou royal family, broke through Gaojing, killed King Yu of Zhou, and Western Zhou dynasty perished."

The last paragraph talks about slave economy of Shang and Zhou dynasties. It can be seen that although book has improved a lot, it still continues to use "theory of five social forms". "History" also specifically introduces slaves of Shang and Zhou dynasties. The agricultural system of Shang and Zhou dynasties was a "well system". In addition to agriculture, handicrafts also briefly take root.

In Study of Problem, several materials of "people-oriented" thought of Western Zhou Dynasty were shown, and question "What do you think is significance of Western Zhou concept of people-oriented thinking" was raised. It actually asks students to think about culture of Western Zhou Dynasty and its relationship to Confucianism. In Extending Learning, question was raised "to talk about my own understanding of multiple sources and unity of origin of Chinese civilization."

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