Gaoguryeo, or Goryeo for short, is a northeastern ethnic regime that arose from Han Dynasty to Sui and Tang Dynasties. It should be distinguished from Goryeo Dynasty, which once appeared in history of Korea. On national question of Kingdom of Goguryeo, there are disputes between historians of China, North and South Korea. Most scholars in China consider Goguryeo to belong to China's national regime, while historians of North and South Korea consider Goguryeo to belong to North Korean history and refer to Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje as "Three Kingdoms Era".
In fact, Chinese historians in 1950s and 1960s once made final decision: Goguryeo was considered history of North Korea. Looking at "History of Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties" by Wang Zhongluo, we can find that Goguryeo was included in chapter "Sino-Foreign Economic and Cultural Exchanges during Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties". "Frontier ethnic groups during Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties" means that Goguryeo is not considered part of China. Tang Qixiang, who likes the Kaijiang Map, didn't pay attention to Goguryeo.
Selected catalog "History of Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties"
Map of Sui Dynasty by Tang Qixiang (partial): Goguryeo uncolored
At time China and North Korea demarcated border, someone suggested, “In past, border between China and North Korea was limited to Liao River, so it doesn't matter if we miss it. “Indeed, guided by this spirit as a guide, we abandoned Changbaishan Mountain when we demarcated border part of Yalu River and many islands at mouth of Yalu River. Today, islands assigned to North Korea are gradually growing, and almost all outlets of Yalu River have become North Korean places, and Northeast China will lose another outlet.
Later, Chinese scholars became more and more aware that inclusion of Goguryeo in Korean history was a serious mistake, not only inconsistent with historical facts, but also seriously detrimental to Chinese interests. As attitudes of Chinese scholars changed, there was considerable controversy between scholars from China and North and South Korea over ownership of Goguryeo.
In fact, there is no problem that Goguryeo belongs to Chinese history. First of all, founder of Goguryeo was Fuyu, a people in Northeast China. Fuyu and Susheng belong to same category, and relatively powerful state of Fuyu was established during Han Dynasty. In 37 BC Zhu Meng, a native of Fuyu, established a kingdom in Hesheng Gucheng (now mountain town of Huangren Wongw, Liaoning), which is Kingdom of Goguryeo. North Korea and South Korea were created by Han people. The Han people had three branches in Han Dynasty, and they were called "Three Han". They lived in south of "38th parallel" in the Han Dynasty.
Northern expansion of Li Dynasty during Ming Dynasty
During Tang Dynasty, people of Fuyu were called Mohe, and they founded Balhe Kingdom. It is absurd for Koreans to follow lineage of Goguryeo and even think that Balhae is part of Korean history. Mohe is divided into Sumo Mohe and Heishui Mohe, which were called "Mature Jurchens" and "Born Jurchens" in Liao Dynasty. During Qing Dynasty, "mature Jurchens" among them were renamed "Manchukuos" and "Manchus", and "Sheng Jurchens" were modern Hezhen, Xibe, Evenk, Oroqen, etc., all of which were frontier ethnic groups in China .
Secondly, Goguryeo was built on Chinese soil. Goguryeo was first established in Goguryeo County during Han Dynasty, so it was named Goguryeo. After that, Goguryeo moved his capital to Ji'an and finally settled in Pyongyang. These places belong to territory of Han Dynasty. The ancient land of Pyongyang used to belong to Jizi Joseon and Wiman Joseon, but both were frontier regimes of China. Gojoseon is actually a region of China and should be distinguished from country name Zhu Yuanzhang later gave to Li dynasty of South Korea. Zhu Yuanzhang gave name "North Korea" to South Korean Li Dynasty because Zhu Yuanzhang knew little about Northeast China, which eventually caused confusion.
Jian Goguryeo Ruins
We only need to confirm that present-day North Korea and South Korea are Korean countries, and we can find out who owns Goguryeo, Balhae, and other countries. Today, China needs to correct mistakes made by historians in 1950s and 1960s: it brought Goguryeo regime into China's border regime and must abandon use of Tan Qixiang map and compile a new historical map.