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West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

Spain has never flourished in international relations, except for Journal of International Studies (Center for Constitutional Studies), Notebook of Modern and Contemporary History (Department of Geography and History, Complutense University) from space and time, so until 1990s no articles on this topic appeared.

This is amazing, besides, a country like Spain does not have such a collection of diplomatic documents as Western countries, 1992 established Spanish Commission on History of International Relations Finally, at "First Symposium on History of International Relations" in 1994, Pereira Castanares formulated a number of fundamental aspects: object of study in history of international relations, relations, specification of subject areas of development, international law and international law.

At beginning of this century, Nilla Hernandez conducted a study in various countries (Spain, France, Germany, Italy, etc.), analyzing a historical range of theoretical approaches to status International Social Sciences, presenting major theoretical contributions to the field.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

It fully illustrates course of traditional diplomatic history with a strong historical flavor, history of international relations and an attempt to overcome nationalist paradigm.

A few conferences in 1994 that were attended by non-Hispanic experts seem to show different methods in our field of study. In this regard, Moreno said: “Close cooperation between national researchers with different backgrounds and ideologies seems especially suitable for studying history of international relations, with different personal and ideological sensitivities, with different methodological, opposite interpretations of them. recent events are often different."

The symbolic debate about history of international relations, which seems to retain a common denominator, has in many cases been homogenized, associating methodological problems with epistemological shortcomings.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

Since then, study of bilateral relations between states has continued to take precedence over general foreign policy issues, and studies such as that of Marina Casanova have been included in this framework. Mercedes Montero, Martinez, and Alfredo Moreno were leaders closest to this study.

However, since 2000 study of history of international relations has entered a brilliant and more varied phase, which is a good example of "Spain's foreign policy from 1800 to present". work", received many high marks due to breadth and diversity of its topics and methods, as well as scientific rigor of a large number of experts and collaborators.

This work details history that they themselves led, general vision of development of Spain's foreign policy in recent years, their geostrategic position, importance of external economy for Spanish economy, the organization of external administration and activities of autonomous regions, role of diplomacy , armed forces and media, extent of immigration, cultural factors and development cooperation.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

Furthermore, main coordinates of Spain's foreign policy in its various aspects are very clearly set out, covering Europe, Latin America, Mediterranean world, Asia and Africa, and finally, Spain's foreign policy provided an overview of relations.

Swedish is also doing a fair amount of work on bilateral relations of country with other countries, of which Swedish side somehow has more relations with Great Britain, Russia, Turkey and other.

In this regard, in both countries there are consistently different theories and approaches to topic, while among Spaniards there is a certain primacy of actors focused on structural issues, while in Sweden opposite is true.

However, in Spain, as already mentioned, role and actions of diplomatic representatives in relational analysis are usually studied from a point of view that can be called "vertical bottom-up".

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

Following guidelines of government, including in terms of field of protection of state power in international frameworks, a horizontal perspective prevails in Sweden with study of various social groups that influence international politics, even - called. And above story (history of underestimation) is very important.

A good example is large-scale experiment 50s, based on memories of Swedish volunteers from International Brigade or Swedish journalists who directly experienced war in Spain. is also flourishing.

In Sweden it is from a theoretical and methodological point of view history of ideas, while in Spain there are fewer such works. An exception in this respect is study of Ejido León, angel of Mary, which for this reason has become an indispensable starting point for the study of interest to us.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

Finally, study of history of international relations in Sweden follows a hallmark of Swedish historical research in recent decades, heavily influenced by post-Kuchnian epistemological theory: it is based on a relativistic conception of reality, Alesund and Skoldberg< /strong> glorify truth in tripartism.

The concept of triple truth is distinct from truth, applied truth, and significant truth. In hermeneutics prevailing in Sweden, a third concept of truth is explicitly chosen, following Heidegger and Ricoeur, implying neither correspondence nor use, which makes sense to discover deeper truths at subjective level of significance.

In practice, in historical studies with a strong theoretical load, almost absolutely dominant goal is to better understand structure behind historical evolution of a particular document, with an emphasis on theory with bibliography. strong> and Concept Talk.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

In field, rather than an empirical analysis of available sources, methodological implications of so-called critical theories of knowledge, as Frank Flott argues, make them feel that is crucial in any comparative historical work. In understanding unique differences in historical traditional approaches of each country, also makes a valuable contribution to history of each country in order to better understand and interpret issues at hand.

We have decided to give priority to a more typical approach of Spanish historiography, namely a rigorous analysis of "basic evidence of era", that is, rich primary sources and interpretations of achievements of existing historians in light of their progress.

It is quite likely, however, that after historical preparation in both Swedish and Spanish traditions, they appeared more or less consciously in our analysis in Scandinavian countries more than in Spanish language.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

We acknowledge that methodological approaches to study of Swedish-Spanish diplomatic relations may differ, but we tend to follow qualitative approach of modern historical hermeneutic practice, although it is predominantly based on abduction as an aspect of integration and transcendence of traditional approaches. The purely inductive method of so-called basic theory proposed by Glaser and Strauss is a purely deductive method.

Whether these people are poprians courtiers, Marxists or postmodernists, from empirical data to theory of interpretation, in search of new data, we believe , is a suitable tool for studying bilateral political and diplomatic relations between states.

On other hand, main historical source that forms empirical basis of this study is diplomatic missions of ministers of various countries.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

1931-1939 The plenipotentiaries of Sweden and Spain to governments of Madrid and Stockholm may annually record some features of discourse analysis that are currently popular in method of postmodernist and poststructuralist doctrine. We mean theory of narrative in historical terms.

This is not supposed to enter era of deep knowledge, it is worth making a short stop here. According to Cameron, a narrative or concept can be defined in a heuristic way, in contrast to chronicle description, essential characteristic of a narrative as a concept is its temporality, occurrence of events in a certain order and within a certain period of time. , considering each moment of description.

There is no mention of any variations, repetitions, duration, etc. Unusually, events they experienced were not related to each other, which is typical for historical narratives, taking into account causal and teleological aspects, that is, different actors have different intentions and goals pursued.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

Many diplomats politically, socio-economically produced and sent within a certain period of time, as defined by Karlshammer, are a specific historical narrative based on current Beaufort social reality, View by filter< /strong> about sources information available to diplomats.

Wrote a story about events in a country with a strong electrical signal. Its specific purpose is to provide relevant governments with necessary data to enable them to make informed decisions on foreign policy matters.

In this regard, diplomatic narrative/regardless of its specific content is an important source of decision making. Therefore, in later historical development it can serve as an essential element for other actors in historical process. Therefore, study of diplomatic embassies is very important for a better understanding of historical period,

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

A key issue in analysis is to understand historical background against which they arose, so that we will inevitably come to personalities of authors and make them unique diplomats. They, like any other people, are affected by historical events they have experienced due to their genetic condition and historical and cultural backgrounds as their social environment.

Transferring their interpretations of Fate, Country, Politics, Life to paper, they found that historical reality does not coincide with vision and hopes for future of authors of this office. The traditional historiography of international relations places great emphasis on personalities, especially missions and ambassadors, as a crucial aspect of bilateral international relations.

This vision is typical of historiography, in which individualistic aspects prevail over structural ones. There is no doubt that personal qualities of minister or consul, their education and contacts, their perception of international political realities in force at a particular time, and their knowledge of delegating country have a great influence on this attitude.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

With this in mind, it is also necessary to emphasize structural aspects of any bilateral international relationship, for which "no man is an island" is most common expression, not to mention jargon of career diplomats.

Furthermore, especially in diplomatic aspect, this structural aspect is not limited to local and scale itself, but is quite unique in ensemble of diplomatic missions recognized in any capital. They do not use their status in this institution in vain, but as foreign diplomats in a particular place, international law and international practice entrust them with certain functions of coordinating diplomatic work.

As a result, influence of some diplomats on other diplomats is direct and very specific, practice of common sources of information by host countries, cooperation in informing governments of interested countries.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

As we have learned, this aspect, however supernatural, was especially important during Spanish Civil War. According to famous German philosopher of history Jörn Rosen, historical events have a pre-narrative character, and when a theme is revealed, they become narrative.

According to Luzen, great historical narrative has function of teaching and legitimizing historical identity of a nation and is true if it respects events it tells and norms of interpretation established by consensus of historians. The stories must have economic and normative credibility, as well as narrative coherence.

West: faith in history, development of diplomacy

In addition, rhetorical aspect is especially important in relation to foreign policy. Based on a study of Swedish political discourse on post-war European security, Jensen argues that language is not only a transmitter of meaning but also a means of creating it. From a constructive point of view, role of metaphor is not only rhetorical embellishment.

After analyzing language used by Swedish politicians in League of Nations, he concluded that use of what he called "mythic stories" penetrated deepest beliefs and beliefs of audience they were targeting . way of expressing feelings, therefore political discourse is usually based on a very simple explanatory program and at same time based on beliefs of society.


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