Currently, most of history textbooks used in high schools use Tan Qixiang's version of maps. There are many bias factors in Tan version of map, and there are many map expansion phenomena. In this regard, editor selected and made several relatively objective maps, forming a series of maps from Xia Dynasty to Qing Dynasty.
The territory of Xia Dynasty is clearly not a territory, but a sphere of activity. According to many historical records, Xia Dynasty probably operated in southern Shanxi and northern Henan province, centered on Luoyang River basin. , it can be seen that center of Xia Dynasty must be in Luoyang area.
Situational map of Xia Dynasty
Regarding territory of Shang Dynasty, in Historical Records; biography of Wu Qi" it is written: "Zuomenmen, right Taihang, Changshan is in north, and river passes in south." Mengmen here is border area between Shanxi and Shaanxi. Generally speaking, territory of Shang Dynasty was located on North China Plain and Shanxi Plateau. Some maps include Shang Dynasty in Yangtze River Basin, which apparently includes other Fang Guos.
Xia Shang's situation
Western Zhou Dynasty Maps Currently, most maps in China show maps of enfeoffment of Western Zhou dynasty, rather than territory of Western Zhou dynasty. The editor believes that Western Zhou Dynasty map probably consists of Shang Dynasty area plus Guanzhong and Hanyang Zhuji areas. Southern peoples such as Chu and Xu were enemies of Western Zhou Dynasty for a long time. King Zhao of Zhou, King Mu of Zhou, and King Xuan of Zhou conquered Chu and Xu for a long time. Therefore, editor believes that this is not territory of Western Zhou dynasty. In addition, in northeast direction, area of the state of Yang reaches farthest, and to north - remnants of Shang dynasty, states of Guzhu, Shanzhong, Jizi of North Korea, etc. The purpose of enfeoffing state of Yan is to prevent them from moving south.
Map of Western Zhou Dynasty
There were many countries during Spring and Autumn period, so only large countries were marked on general maps, and maps that were usually drawn were also maps of late Spring and Autumn period. During this period, State of Qi annexed Dongyi countries in Shandong Peninsula, State of Chu annexed Hanyang Zhuji and many small countries in southeast, State of Qin opened Sirong, State of Jin expanded into Beidi region, and State of Yang annexed Guzhu with help of State of Qi, Shang Rong , Wu Yue rose in southeast.
spring and autumn
During Warring States period, Seven Heroes of Warring States finally formed: State of Qin included Basha and Yiqiu in its territory, State of Chu annexed State of Yue, State of Zhao conquered Zhongshan, Lufan, Linhu and occupied territory of Hetao. ; Extension, once-annexed Song state; The state of Yan moved to Liaodong. The expanded territory of Seven Heroes of Warring States period laid foundation for later inland and contributed to unification of Qin Dynasty.
After Qin dynasty united six countries, it continued to rebuild Henan (Hetao) and conquered Baiyue in south. Fortress and Yinshan to Liaodong. Huge territory. The territory of Tan Qixiang of Qin dynasty reaches southernmost border of China and Vietnam, which does not include Jiaozhi, but includes Yunnan and Guizhou. This is incorrect. According to Han Shu records, Xiang County of Qin Dynasty was divided into three counties: Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen, and Rinan (also known as Beixianghu in Historical Records) during Han Dynasty, all located in present-day Vietnam. . Under Qin and Han dynasties, Yunnan and Guizhou were "southwestern Yi" along with Yelang, Dian, and other countries that were not considered Qin territory.
The territory of Qin Dynasty
The territory of early Han Dynasty is sum of territories of seven heroes of Warring States period. During reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, after Northern Expedition of Huns: Hetao was restored and received Hexi Corridor. It also destroyed Nanyue Kingdom and Jiji Korea, conquered southwestern Yi region, brought western regions under its influence, and reached its peak. During Eastern Han Dynasty, western regions and northeast, Hetao, Rinan County, and Hainan Island were reduced, but kingdom of Ailao was acquired in southwest. In short, territory of Han Dynasty almost doubled that of Qin Dynasty, covering about 5.6 million square kilometers.
Map of Han Dynasty
The territory of Wei and Jin dynasties, biggest controversy is currently related to western regions. Whether Wei and Jin dynasties controlled western regions. Tan Qixian's map of Wei and Jin dynasties included all western regions, while other versions did not show it at all. However, Wei and Jin dynasties established jurisdictional agencies in eastern part of western regions—Changshifu of western regions, Yiwu County, Wuji Xiaowei, etc. Although Wei and Jin dynasties could not control western regions at that time, they could rule eastern part of Western regions. Recent generations had far-reaching influence. Later, Later Liang, Northern Wei, Sui and Tang dynasties, Yuan dynasty, and Ming dynasty all incorporated eastern part of Western Regions into their sphere of influence or territory and became stronghold of Central Plains Dynasty that controlled western regions.
Map of Western Jin Dynasty
During Eastern Jin Dynasty, Central Plains were in turmoil, and Five Men were in chaos in China, and sixteen countries emerged. In Southern and Northern Dynasties, Northern Wei Dynasty founded by Xianbei people unified north and became part of Northern Dynasty, while Eastern Jin Dynasty in south was also replaced by Southern Dynasty. The Southern Dynasties survived four Song, Qi, Liang, and Chen dynasties and were called "Six Dynasties" along with Eastern Wu and Eastern Jin. The Northern Wei later split and was under control of Gao family and Yuwen family respectively, eventually establishing Northern Zhou Dynasty and Northern Qi Dynasty.
The Sixteen Kingdoms of Eastern Jin Dynasty
Early Northern and Southern Dynasties
Late Northern and Southern Dynasties
After founding of Sui Dynasty, north and south united again. The territory of Sui dynasty "started from Liaohe River in east, reached desert in north, reached Dunhuang in west, and occupied Jiaozhi in south." It is larger than territory of Qin Dynasty, breaking through 4 million square kilometers. However, territory of Sui Dynasty drawn by Tan Qixian far surpasses Dunhuang in west. The reason is that Emperor Yang of Sui created four prefectures of Xihai, Heyuan, Shanshan, and Qemo. However, how to control four counties remains to be explored.
Map of Sui Dynasty
The territory of Tang Dynasty, according to ancient documents, “the land of Tang reaches Andong Mansion in east, Anxi Mansion in west, Rinan County in south, and Shanyu Mansion in north. The north and south are as prosperous as former Han dynasty, and east is smaller than it and west is above it. The Land of Han extends to Lelang and Xuantu in east, which are now Goryeo and Bohai Sea. Today it is located in Liaodong, which is not land of Tang Dynasty. The Land of Han reaches Dunhuang County in west, which is now Shazhou. Also". That is, north and south are similar to Han Dynasty, east is not as good as Han Dynasty, and west is more than Han Dynasty. We can understand that Tang Dynasty is divided into territory and sphere of influence. The territory of Tang Dynasty is mainly located in south of Yinshan Mountains, excluding Liaodong, but including Xizhou, Yizhou and Tingzhou in western regions. This is base of Tang Dynasty to rule western regions. The sphere of influence of Tang Dynasty once reached Mobei, Korean Peninsula, western regions and other places. Tang Qixiang attracted Tang dynasty version to Tocharia (Afghanistan) and Central Asia. In fact, Tocharia was occupied by Arab Empire during Tang Gaozong period, and Shiguo and Talas were already westernmost sphere of influence of Tang dynasty.
Map of Tang Dynasty (light red color - sphere of influence)
The territory of the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties is relatively large.
As for territory of Yuan Dynasty, engravings of Tang reached coast of Arctic Ocean, which is very biased. At that time, Sino-Soviet relations deteriorated and politics influenced Tan Qixiang's card. During Yuan Dynasty, Guo Shoujing established 27 observatories throughout country, northernmost of which was in Beihai. According to Astronomical Record of Yuan History, "Beihai, North Pole is 65 degrees above earth, and summer solstice sundial shadow is six feet seven inches and eight minutes long. , Eighty-two quarters of day and eighteen quarters of night", according to assumption, North Sea is located at about 63 degrees north latitude. In addition, someone suggested that Yuan Dynasty recorded that someone saw polar day phenomenon. The editor believes that what we see is not necessarily territory. When we see moon, it is impossible to say that moon belongs to us.
Ming Dynasty territory, historical record "Jiang Lue at beginning of Ming Dynasty, From Korea in east, Tufan in west, Annan in south, Daqi in north , 11,750 east to west Li, 10 940 miles north to south. Since Cheng Zu left Danying and moved to Dongsheng, Xuanzong moved Kaiping to Dushi and Emperor Shizong left Hami and Hetao, then from Liaohai in east to Jiayu in west, from Qiong and Ya in south to Yun and Shuo in north, more than ten thousand miles from east to west and thousands of miles from north to south.” from Yuan Dynasty who moved to Hezhou (now Linxia at beginning of Ming Dynasty)), Zhu Yuanzhang created Hezhou Guard. Dhaka is also Gobi desert, which is junction of Monan and Mobei. This means that territory of early Ming Dynasty stretched from Gobi Desert in north, Annan in south, Linxia in west, and Yalu River in east. In later period, it continued to lose its territory, which was only about 4 million square kilometers.
Ming territory (yellow - sphere of influence or lost lands)
The territory of Qing Dynasty The information is explained as follows: “In twenty-five years of reign of Qianlong (1760), after Qing Dynasty pacified Dzungar Khanate, territory reached its peak, starting from Tannu Wulianghai region of Mongolia and Siberia in north and reaching South -Chinese Sea in south. Including "Thousands of Lishitang, Wanli Changsha and Zengmu Ansha" (today's South China Sea Islands), it reaches Tawang area. Tibet in southwest, Nankang area, Jiangxinpo in Yunnan and other northern areas of Myanmar, and reaches areas of Congling and Lake Balkhash in west. Beyond Xing'an Mountains, including Sakhalin Island, southeast includes Taiwan and Penghu Islands. The land area is more than 13.16 million square kilometers, and at end of Qing dynasty in 1908, it was reduced to about 11.35 million square kilometers.