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University of Michigan Map of China's Major Dynasties: What Went Wrong?

Many universities in US and Europe have produced historical maps of China. The level of these cards is not same, some of them are objective, and some are not. An editor recently found a University of Michigan map of China's major dynasties on Internet, and let's see what it looks like.

Topographic map

The territory of Western Zhou Dynasty, here may be territory actually controlled by princes of Zhou Dynasty. The Dongyi area in picture was not actually controlled. For example, although there are large countries such as Lu and Qi in Shandong Peninsula, there are still large Dongyi countries such as Layi, and there is state of Xu in Huai River basin. These pictures are not shown on map. There is some truth in entering territory. These countries may have been enemies of Zhou Dynasty for a long time, and there are many poems in Book of Songs about Xu's conquest. However, in terms of actual control, State of Chu has no actual control, and kings of State of Chu have openly become kings and have been in constant war with Western Zhou Dynasty since time of King Zhao of Zhou.

The Warring States period map was compiled by University of Seattle. Based on map, Qin State had already occupied Yanying Land in State of Chu, and Zhao State had occupied Hetao Plain, so this map shows situation after 278 BC. However, during reign of King Yan Zhao (314 BC - 279 BC), Yan state had already defeated Donghu and occupied Liaodong region. However, territory of Yan State on the map has not yet reached Liaoning, so an error has occurred. There are no problems in other aspects.

The territory of Qin Dynasty. The map of this area is Qin Dynasty map commonly used in United States, which is very different from Tan Qixiang map in China, and also very different from Qin Dynasty map commonly used in Europe. The Qin Dynasty on map does not include Yunnan-Guizhou area, but Tang Qixiang does. I agree with this map. However, southeastern side does not agree. The map does not include Fujian, Jiangxi and other places, and southern part of Zhejiang. In fact, Qin dynasty created Mingzhong County and Jiujiang County. Nor is northern Vietnam, where Qin Dynasty established Xiangjun, in picture. Therefore, map is not objective and errors are obvious.

The territory of Han Dynasty. The map is not much different from maps of different versions in China, but there are still three places that are worth paying attention to. First, revised map did not include Hainan Island. Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty once created two counties, Zhuya and Dan'er, on Hainan Island, so it belonged to territory of Han Dynasty. Second, part of altered map in Vietnam only reached northern Vietnam. The Han Dynasty created three counties in Vietnam, Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen, and Rinan, which could reach central Vietnam. The third is north. The territory of Han Dynasty on map can reach neighboring region, but you can also include southern region of the Xiongnu. It can be said that this is a sphere of influence, which is larger than on many maps of China.

Maps of Wei and Jin dynasties. The map of Wei and Jin dynasties does not include western regions, while most Wei and Jin maps in China include western regions, and there is some truth in both. The Wei and Jin dynasties once built Changsha Mansion of Western Regions in eastern part of Western Regions, which shows that they can control eastern part of Western Regions. However, he failed to control most of countries in western regions.

Map of peak of Tang Dynasty. There are three differences between this map and Tan version map. The first version of Tang reached Lake Baikal in Mobei region, but only region of Hanghai Duhufu, which is today's territory of Outer Mongolia, is drawn on map; map is drawn on Balkhash-Lake-Pamir line. I think Tan's version is not target. Third, Tanban Southwest included Yunnan and map was included. At beginning of Tang Dynasty, Yunnan only confiscated some Jimi prefectures without actual control, but these can also be considered spheres of influence, each with its own reasons.

Map of late Tang Dynasty. Compared to Tan Qixiang's map, main difference lies in northeast. The late Tang Dynasty map drawn by Tang Qixian includes entire northeast and even crosses Xing'an Outer Mountains uncapped. In fact, at height of Tang Dynasty, it could only reach Liaodong region and was out of reach of Heilongjiang River Basin. After Anshi Rebellion, Tang Dynasty Anton Protectorate was abolished, Liaodong was also captured by Bobohai Kingdom, and communication between Tang Dynasty and Northeast was interrupted by Khitans. The Tang Dynasty only nominally awarded titles of Bohai, Shiwei, Heishui and other rulers' mansions that were not part of territory.

The territory of Song Dynasty is basically same as on inner map. However, if you take a close look at territory of Jin Kingdom, you will find problems. The Kingdom of Jin originated in Heilongjiang River basin and is able to control entire Heilongjiang region. And Kingdom of Jin on this map has Heilongjiang as its northern border, which is obviously problematic. This map suits taste of Russia.

Map of Northern Song Dynasty

Southern Song Dynasty

The maps of Mongol Empire and Yuan Dynasty are very different from maps of Tang version. The Tang version of map included entire region of Siberia within Yuan Dynasty. In fact, northernmost part of Yuan Dynasty must be a tribe in forest conquered by Genghis Khan - Buryat Mongolia, mainly located in region of Lake Baikal, that is, North Sea. In addition, there is a problem with northeast region of map. The Yuan Dynasty once built a marshal's mansion in Tlin at mouth of Heilongjiang River. It can be seen that Yuan Dynasty was supposed to control entire basin of Heilongjiang River. . In addition, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Yuan Dynasty are not same color on this map, which is also incorrect. The Yuan Dynasty stationed troops in Tibet and also set up institutions for collecting taxes and counting household registrations, which can be called real control.

Mongol Empire

The Yuan Dynasty and Four Khanates

This series of Ming and Qing maps has not yet been found.

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