Pinghesha is a major publishing house in Japan founded in 1914 and publishes mainly reference books, mainly encyclopedias, as well as books and periodicals in various disciplines. I recently received a copy of Historical Map of Asia published by Pingfan Society in 1966 from Internet. I have selected twelve of them to show, to see how they are written.
Firstly, this is a map of archaeological sites in Asia. On map, Asian archaeological cultures are divided into "Kaiven circle of pottery" and "Microlithic culture". The former is a predominantly agricultural civilization, including Yellow River Basin, Indus River Basin, Mesopotamian River Basin, Nile River Basin, Greece, and Italian Peninsula. The latter were mostly nomadic civilizations, mostly located in depths of Eurasian continent. However, lines of two main civilizational areas are too random and accuracy is too low. For example, China's Shandong Peninsula and Yangtze River basin are not drawn in this area.
The second mainly shows Asia from Spring and Autumn period to Qin Dynasty. During Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, feudal vassals fought for hegemony in China, and it was in a state of division. The region of Western Asia went from division to unification, and an unprecedentedly large Persian empire was created. In India, Mauryan empire gradually consolidated and united Ganges basin. The second half is a map of Asia during Qin Dynasty. The peacock empire in South Asia basically unified subcontinent of South Asia. But Persia was still drawn on map. In fact, Persian Empire was destroyed by Alexander at that time, and Alexander Empire was divided into three kingdoms when Qin Dynasty was founded. Among them, Seleucid Dynasty had largest area, occupying Iranian plateau and Mesopotamia, and area around peninsula of Asia Minor.
The third map of Asia from Western Han Dynasty to early Eastern Han Dynasty. At that time, Western Han Dynasty and Xiongnu were constantly at war, which is shown on map. Western regions and Korea are included in map of Western Han Dynasty on map, but Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau is not included in map of Western Han Dynasty, which is incredible. World powers associated with Western Han dynasty include Roman Republic and Parthian Empire of Iran, but Rome is labeled "Roman Empire" in picture. Due to large time period and large changes in situation on Eurasian continent, map still hardly reflects changes in situation, for example, Guishuang Empire did not reflect this.
In lower left corner of third picture is a map of Asia from 3rd-4th centuries. At that time, China was in Jin Dynasty, north was at war with sixteen countries, and south was peaceful in Eastern Jin Dynasty. In Western Asia, Parthian dynasty was replaced by Sassanid dynasty, and Roman Empire also had to enter an era of decline and is moving towards division. In South Asia, Gupta Empire was founded, second relatively unified dynasty in Indian history.
The fourth picture is a map of Asia in 5th-6th centuries. At that time, China was in period from Northern and Southern Dynasties to Sui Dynasty, from division to unification, but map mainly reflects Northern and Southern Dynasties. At that time, Roman Empire on Eurasian continent (which was divided into Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire), Sassanid dynasty and Gupta Empire remained strong to a certain extent, but general trend was towards decline. . The emerging power at that time was Kheda empire, which emerged in Central Asia, which defeated Sassanid and Gupta dynasties, occupied large territories in western regions, Central Asia, South Asia and Western Asia and was very strong. Chinese and foreign historical maps rarely pay attention to this empire, but it is worth recognizing that Japanese Heiheinsha included it.
The fifth is a historical map of Asia in 7th-8th centuries. At that time, China was in Tang Dynasty, and there were threats from Turks and other ethnic groups in north. The Tang Dynasty's opposition was Arab Empire. After empire destroyed Persia, it entered Central Asia and competed with the Tang Dynasty for hegemony. The Zetian empire was established in South Asia, but it did not last long.
The sixth map of Asia, 10th-11th centuries. At that time, China was in period of confrontation between Song and Liao. The pattern of Northern Song Dynasty is basically same as now, but pattern of Kingdom of Liao is completely different. In western regions, there are Gaochang Uighurs and Karakhan dynasty, in southwest, Dali, and in northwest, Xiaxia, all marked on map. At that time in Western Asia there was a powerful Seljuk empire and Khorezm dynasty, which were forerunners of Ottoman Empire.
The seventh is a 13th-century map of Asia. At that time, China was in period of confrontation between Song and Jin, and Mongolia was rising in north. The territory of kingdom of Jin in picture is clearly drawn too small, reaching only basin of Songhua River. In western regions lived Gaochang Uighurs and Siliaos, at that time Gaochang Uighurs broke away from Siliaos and began to fall into arms of Mongolia. In Western Asia, there are such dynasties as Khorezm, and in South Asia, Islamic Delhi Sultanate has been established.
The eighth picture is territory of Mongol Empire. At that time, apart from Southeast Asia and South Asia, Asian continent was mainly conquered by Mongolia. In South Asia, there was Delhi Sultanate, and in Western Asia, there was Ottoman Empire. These are all dynasties of Muslim faith. However, in picture, northeastern border of Mongolia is drawn along Heilongjiang, which is somewhat biased. Maps compiled by Japan often do not include the northern coast of Heilongjiang Province and Sakhalin Island in China. This is an attempt.
The ninth map is a map of Asia from 15th century. At that time, China was in heyday of Ming Dynasty, and territory of Ming Dynasty was in its largest state. The northeast of Ming Dynasty in this image is east of Songhua River - Heilongjiang, and also does not include Sakhalin Island. The map of Ming Dynasty in this map is basically same as map of Ming Dynasty in other countries in world, and there is a big gap with Tang Qixiang's version, so I will not make too many comments here. The Timurid Empire arose in Western Asia. There is Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia and Golden Horde in Eastern Europe.
The tenth map is a map of Asia from 16th century. At that time, Ming Dynasty was in middle period, and territory completely retreated to Great Wall. At same time, Ming dynasty invaded Burma. In South Asia, Mughal Empire was created, effectively uniting Indus and Ganges valleys. In Western Asia, Iran became independent and Ottoman Empire became emerging hegemon. In Eastern Europe, Russia annexed fragmented Golden Horde and began to expand into Siberia.
The eleventh map is a map from 17th and 18th centuries. The map is dedicated to establishment and expansion of Qing Dynasty. The arrows on map reflect Qing Dynasty's war for unification of Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet. However, Sakhalin Island is still not drawn in territory of Qing Dynasty. This is biggest problem. In North Asia, Russian expansion was reflected in fortifications and events, reaching Pacific coast at turn of Ming and Qing dynasties and occupying all of Siberia. In South Asia, Mughal Empire moved from unity to division and thus would be colonized; in Western Asia, the Ottoman Empire remains strong.
The twelfth map is a historical map of Asia in 19th century. At that time, Qing Dynasty had entered late stage and had already lost 1.5 million square kilometers of land in outer northeast and outer northwest. , as well as Sino-Japanese Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 and Sino-French War. In South Asia, India completely fell into British colony, and Southeast Asia completely fell, except for Thailand. The Ottoman Empire still exists in Western Asia, but it, too, is dying and its territory is shrinking.
Generally speaking, historical maps drawn by Japan are more objective, but they often include attempts on Sakhalin Island, because Japan historically tried to occupy Sakhalin Island, so it also denies history of China's jurisdiction over Sakhalin Island.