The Chinese historical map drawn by Tang Qixiang has become Chinese historical map authority and is used in textbooks of various high schools. However, his map can only be seen as political and not as a true historical map. Because historical maps of Tang Ban have always been famous for "opening borders with maps." For example, he drew a map of Yuan dynasty to coast of Arctic Ocean, and a map of Tang dynasty to Aral Sea. it is said that this was due to deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations at time.
Map of Qin Dynasty by Tan Qixian
However, many people probably don't know that Tan Qixiang's map contains not only "maps to open borders", but also "maps to narrow borders". Some of his maps will not include certain areas in territory to show so-called "international friendship", of which Vietnam is a prime example. Vietnam was not included in Tang Qixian's maps of Qin and Ming dynasties, which is quite inventive.
Map of prefectures and counties of Qin dynasty, adapted from Tang version (the southwestern region is objective, but Xiang county has not changed)
First of all, let's talk about territory of Qin Dynasty. In pre-Qin period, northern Vietnam was Luoyue, which belonged to Baiyue. After Qin dynasty destroyed Baiyue, Xiang County was established here. Where is Elephant County located? Zhou Qufei of Song Dynasty is recorded in Ling Wai Dai Da Bai Yue's Hometown: "Jiaozhi is also Xiangjun. Emperor Wu Han... is three years away from Xiangjun. , Nichinan." "Daiu Shiji", first book on history of Vietnam, reports: "The land of Han Yue was divided into nine counties... Hepu, Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen and Nichinan, Qin Dynasty belonged to Xiang County. That is, after Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty destroyed Nanyue, Xiang County of Qin Dynasty was divided into three counties: Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen and Rinan. This point is unanimously recognized by both ancient Chinese books and ancient Vietnamese books.
Distribution map of nine districts of South Vietnam
Among them, Jiaozhi County is Hanoi, Vietnam today, which was not disputed in history. Jiuzhen County is located in central Vietnam, with Nichinan County being most controversial. Sima Qian said in "Historical Record" that southernmost point of territory of Qin Dynasty was "houses oriented to north", so-called "houses oriented to north", and Geographical Notes of Han Shu "says that it is in south from sun, so-called opening of houses facing north, facing sun. That is, local sunlight can enter house from north, also known as "Ninan", Tropic of Cancer today. So what is specific latitude? "Shui Jing Zhu" provides information that "the millet area is built eight feet high, and shade from sun is eight inches to south. Since shadow is in south, it is south of sun, so it is called a county." according to astronomical calculations, this is about 16 degrees north latitude in town of Hue in Vietnam. Because of this, after Han Dynasty destroyed Nanyue, Rinan County was established in central Vietnam. The Geographical Records of Hanshu records: "Rinan County, hence Qinxiang County, opened in sixth year of Emperor Wu Yuanding's reign and changed its name."
However, Tan Qixiang drew location of Xiangjun in Pingxiang in Guangxi, which is actually a gesture of favor to Vietnam. After Vietnam gained independence from French colonial rule, its nationalism grew. Vietnamese historians are unwilling to admit that he was once part of Chinese history. The Vietnamese historian Tao Weiying stated absurdly: "Xiang County is now part of western part of Guangxi province and possibly southern part of Guizhou." this is a statement. Of course, in China there are other people's maps, more objective. Many maps of Qin dynasty in Japan and in West also included northern Vietnam in their territory.
1955 Chinese Historical Atlas (Part of Ancient History)
Let's talk about territory of dynasty. The time of Ming territory chosen by Tang Qixian is 1433, which is a very strange point in time. Because this year, Nuer Gandu division in northeast still exists, but establishment of chief envoy Jiaozhi in Vietnam has been canceled, so Vietnam can not be drawn directly. In fact, existence of chief secretary of Jiaozhi (1407-1428) and Nuer Gandu division (1411-1434) largely coincided, and they both represented heyday of Ming Dynasty territory during Yongle period.
Tang Ban's Map of Ming Dynasty
As a rule, if there is a map of Ming dynasty, if there is a Nuer Gandu division, there should be a chief envoy of Jiaozhi. Maps of Ming Dynasty in Japan and West are also drawn in this way. However, in this map drawn by Tan Qixiang, he carefully chose most special year. Emperor Yongle passed away this year, and Jiaozhi was also lost. It is said that peak is not peak. In second year of this card, Nuer Gandousi was also annulled.
Changed map of Ming Dynasty
Tang Qixian's map of territory of Qin Dynasty and Ming Dynasty shows that his territory cannot be used. Because there are many places on its territory that do not respect history, this is not objective, there are either more or less of them. As a researcher of history, I try to respect history as much as possible and not change it randomly.