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A question debated by both Chinese and Vietnamese scholars is: Was Vietnam ruled by Qin Dynasty?

In 214 B.C. Qin Shi Huang finally conquered South Vietnam and founded three districts: Nanhai, Guilin and Xiangjun. Nanhai County is located in Guangdong District, and county seat is in Guangzhou; Guilin County is located in Guangxi District, and county seat is in Guiping County; but specific location of Xiang County is not clearly stated. Since Qin dynasty ruled Nanyue for only five years, it is difficult to find archaeological evidence. There are currently two viewpoints regarding location of Xiangjun, Guangxi and Jiaozhi, so which of two viewpoints is correct?

First, Xiangjun from Jiaozhi or Linchen?

"Historical Records Qinshihuang Benji" describes territory of Qin Dynasty "The land stretches to sea and Korea in east, Lingtao and Qiangzhong in west, Xianghu in north in south, a fortified river in north, and from Yinshan to Liaodong.< /strong>strong>". It can be seen that Beixianhu is southernmost point of Qin Dynasty. North-facing houses indicate places where windows can open to north during year, and these places are south of Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Cancer crosses Guangxi and central Guangdong, so this range is only an approximation.

After Han Dynasty unified South Vietnam, Rinan County was established in central Vietnam. The so-called Rinan means households facing north. Hanshu Geographical Records explained that "He is said to be south of sun, so-called one who opens north door facing sun". "Shui Jing Zhu" further explained that "the county millet built an eight-foot table, sun's shadow is eight inches south, and from south of this shadow, it is south of sun, so it is called a county." The southernmost part of Ri Nan County is at 17 degrees north latitude, in today's Hue District.

The Geography of Hanshu also says: "Rinan County, i.e. Qinxiang County, opened in sixth year of reign of Emperor Wu Yuanding and changed its name". If "Geography of Hanshu" is correct, then Xiang County should have jurisdiction over central part of Vietnam. Li Daoyuan during Southern and Northern Dynasties wrote in Shui Jing Zhu that "Pukou has Qin Shixiang County, and ruins are still ", "Linyi is also capital, and in Codex administration... Qin and Hanxiang County is similar to Linyi”. According to this information, Xiangjun is Xianglin, and later he became independent from China and founded kingdom of Champa.

In ancient times, Chinese and Vietnamese literati generally accepted that Xiangjun was located in Jiaozhi. Zhou Qufei of Song Dynasty recorded in Lingwei Daida Baiyue's Hometown: "Jiaozhi is also Xiangjun. Emperor Wu of Han ... three from Xiangjun, his names are Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen and Rinan." In Vietnam history book Annan Zhiliue, it is also written that "ancient Nanjiao, Zhou's name is Yueshang, and Qin's name is Xiangjun.. Today, Annan lives in nine counties, including Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen and Rinan."

The Nine Counties of Jiaozhou in Han Dynasty

Why do we have controversy these days? It turns out that content recorded in Han Shu contradicts itself. The Han Shu Maoling Shu says, "Xiang Junzhi Lingchen, go to Chang'an seven thousand five hundred miles away." Chongzuo who wants to be here. In 1916, French sinologist Ma Bo wrote "A Study of Xiangjun in Qin and Han Dynasties", in which he proposed Xiangjun, Guangxi, and Guizhou for first time, causing a furor in academic circles.

Marble presented three pieces of evidence. 1. Shan Hai Jing Hai Nei Dong Jing records that “ Yuanshui flows from Xiangjun County to west of Tancheng, flows east into a river, flows into Xiajunxi, and flows into Dongting”, “The Yu River flows out of Xiangjun . County, and southwest flows into South China Sea and flows into Xu southeast of mausoleum.”, that is, it is recorded in Shan Hai Jing that both Yuanjiang River and Yujiang River flowed through Xiangjun ; Dust, go to Chang'an one thousand thousand five hundred miles"; thirdly, in Han Shu Zhaodi Ji, it is written: “Yuanfeng five years...Baxiang County belongs to Yulin and Cang”. say Xiangjun is only southern part of Guizhou and western part of Guangxi.

Another French sinologist, Olousso, put forward 34 historical pieces to counter Mabelo, but since Olousso had no substantive evidence, two disputes continued.

Secondly, Lingchen site was discovered in Guangxi?

After World War II, both China and Vietnam achieved national independence and began to move towards renaissance. During this time, controversy over Xiangjun turned into a controversy between Chinese and Vietnamese scholars. In field of Chinese historiography, people initially believed what Nichinan said. For example, Gu Jiegang's historical map and Guo Moro's "Chinese Historical Manuscript Map" depicted Xiangjun in Vietnam. But later, more and more scholars began to recognize theory of Guangxi, for example, in Tan Qixiang's Atlas of Chinese History, Xiangjun county rule in Chongzuo was noted, and Tan Qixiang believed that this was Linchen.

Tang Qixian's version of county of Qin Dynasty images

After appearance of Tan Qixiang's map, many scholars were puzzled. In 1984, Tan Qixiang delivered an academic lecture at History Department of Guangxi Normal University. Mr. Qian Zongfan handed a note to Tan Qixian and asked him what was basis for drawing Xiangjun in Guangxi. Tang Qixiang answered in front of entire audience, “The southern part of Qinxiang County. In modern Guangxi, there are more reasons to paint, and of course, this issue can still be discussed.”

At first, I was very suspicious of Tang Qixiang and wrote an article explaining that Xiangjun was in Jiaozhi District. However, more I researched and thought about it, more intelligent Linchen spoke.

The Qin Dynasty did not last long and never fully controlled Lingnan area. The Qin dynasty established Nanhai, Guilin and Xiangjun as three main military bases of Qin dynasty. There was only a military administration, but there was no civil administration. administration. These fortresses are connected to mainland by water transport lines and receive supplies. Vast forests and mountains are still occupied by Oyue people, who are in opposition to Qin army. The Qin Dynasty could only continue to rely on strongholds, carry out immigration, and gradually devour land of Oyue. It is a pity that Qin dynasty soon perished, and Nanyue and Han dynasties continued work of Qin dynasty.

Pearl River System

Therefore, three-district county government can only be at center of water traffic. The Qin dynasty's conquest of Lingnan relied mainly on Lingqu, and discovery of Lingqu provided three counties with a steady stream of supplies. Among them, Nanhai County is located at mouth of Pearl River, which is throat that controls whole of Lingnan; Guilin County is located on mainstream of Xijiang River, which is convenient for ensuring smooth transportation of grain.

Lingchen is located on Zuojiang River, which is a tributary of Yujiang River, which is a tributary of Xijiang River. Linchen is throat of water transport. The only waterway to Red River Delta in ancient Guangxi ran upstream from Zuojiang River. The area from Guangxi to Jiaozhi is divided by 100,000 mountains, and there are no rivers directly connected with Red River Plain. Linchen is an important point for water and land transportation. The Qin Dynasty established Xiangjun in Lincheng, and its purpose was naturally to rule Red River Plain.

Three counties of Lingnan

In 2008, a team of Kaoxi archaeologists conducted archaeological excavations on ancient slope of Huashan in Longchuan County and discovered ancient tombs of Han Dynasty, excavated a batch of copper axes, copper spears, copper pools, copper bowls, Han tiles. etc. An ancient city was also discovered, and this is first time that a Han Dynasty monument of this magnitude has been discovered in southwest Guangxi. The burial customs of these ancient tombs are inconsistent with safety of burials of ancient Yue people in rock pits, so it can be seen that they are urban ruins created by people of Central Plains.

Xiang County was only five years old during Qin Dynasty and is difficult to find archaeologically. Under Han Dynasty, Xiang County was also established for a certain period of time. The jurisdiction of two may not be entirely consistent, but in general there must be a succession relationship.

Thirdly, who is Xiangjun set up in such a remote place to deal with?

As mentioned above, Xiang County is located in Lincheng, which is located in southwestern part of Guangxi, and it is inconvenient to administer most areas. However, all three counties of Lingnan are military bases, and their military functions are stronger than their administrative functions. Xiang County was not established to govern western part of Guangxi, but to continue southern expedition. Judging by map, Xiangjun is located on bridgehead of Guangxi's advance to Red River Delta, so direction of expedition of Qin dynasty is Jiaozhi. Who in Jiaozhi interfered with Qin dynasty at that time?

Legends say that earliest country in Vietnam was Wen Lang, and this "Wen Lang" is also a "wolf with tattoos". Wen is a tattoo with broken hair, and wolf is a totem symbol. Wenlang is an offshoot of Baiyue and has not actually entered national arena.

During Warring States period, State of Qin destroyed Shu, and its Prince Pan led part of his tribe to Vietnam, conquered Wenlang, and founded State of Ouluo. Let's analyze this Ou Lo. Ou is a branch of Baiyue. Most of Guangxi is Siou, while Fujian is mostly Dong'ou. Luo is actually Luo, which is also a branch of Baiyue, Loyue. Ou Luo is actually a combination of Xi Ou and Luo Yue.

According to entries in Huainanzi Renjian Xun, Qin Shi Huang sent "Wei Tuju sent 500,000 soldiers to form Fifth Army... Three years without disarming armor and using crossbow, so overseer's salary cannot be transferred to pay; The canal runs through grain road to fight Yue people and kill King Xigu and Song Dynasty; and all people of Yue go to jungle to live with beasts, and they are unwilling to be captives of Qin. Smash it, kill Wei Tujiu, lay down hundreds of thousands of corpses, and bleed hundreds of thousands, and then get ready for it.” “You can see that a large-scale war has broken out. between Qin dynasty and Oyue, and sacrifice was great.

After that, Qin Dynasty sent Ren Xiao as commander-in-chief, started a war against Oyue, and finally conquered Xu and established Guilin County and Xiang County. After that, Ren Xiao served as Captain of Nanhai and Zhao Tuo served as Magistrate of Longchuan County Then Zhao Tuo was at forefront. In 210 BC Ren Xiao was about to start a war against Ou Luo, but he died before he could take action. After that, Zhao Tuo inherited his career and started a war against state of Ouluo.

Qin Zhengbaiyue

The battle is not going well. Due to excellent archery skills of Ouluo people, Zhao Tuo lost his troops and lost his generals. Later, this story gradually turned into a legend. The Records of Jiaozhou Outer Territories states, “After King Wei Tuo of Nanyue mobilized all people to attack King Anyang, King Anyang had a god named Gaotong and helped him with a divine crossbow for king. Anyana, killing 300 people with one shot”. Zhao Tuo later married King Anyang and took Pingjiang as a frontier, but Pingjiang's location can no longer be verified. Later, after fall of Qin Dynasty, Zhao Tuo became king and founded Nanyue kingdom. During reign of Nanyue Kingdom, Zhao Tuo destroyed the Ouluo Kingdom.

Administrative divisions of Qin dynasty

In recent decades, Vietnam has made great strides in field of archeology and discovered that Red River Delta Bronze Culture is related to Sanxingdui culture. In 1954, Mr. Feng Hanji did archeology in Red River Delta and found "boat coffins", and such "boat coffins" were also found in many places in Sichuan, all of them before Qin destroyed Shu. a kind of weapon that originated in Chengdu Plain. It appeared in early Warring States period and disappeared after Qin destroyed Shu. It can be seen that it is unique to ancient state of Shu. In 2006, Sichuan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology and Shaanxi Institute of Archeology jointly conducted archaeological research in Vietnam, and this time, Zhang jade, almost same as Sanxingdui, was found.

Sanxingdui Yuzhang

Through a series of archaeological discoveries, people can basically confirm that early bronze culture in northern Vietnam was founded by ancient Shu people who migrated south, so there is also archaeological evidence for existence of kingdom of Ouluo. In combination with records of various historical materials, we can confirm that at that time there really was a state of Ouluo in Red River Plain, which was not conquered by Zhao Tuo before fall of Qin dynasty, so it did not belong to Qinxiang County. .

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