The unification war of Qin Dynasty began in 230 BC. and ended in 221 BC, only 10 years old. During annexation war of Qin Dynasties, Spring and Autumn and Warring States, which had been separated for 550 years, were finally united, and China entered powerful Qin and Han eras. Even before unification war began, Qin dynasty had already established its dominance. However, it was by no means easy to wage a large-scale unification war. So how did war develop? We learn about this magnificent story from map.
In 247 B.C. King Zhuang Xiang died and 13-year-old Ying Zheng became King of Qin. Since Yingzheng was young, power of Qin was in hands of Lu Buwei. At this time, Qin Dynasty was already largest country in Warring States period. After Lu Buwei destroyed Eastern Zhou Dynasty, Qin state infiltrated Central Plains. The six eastern countries are still in midst of internal strife and pose no threat to Qin. Thus, situation of Qin's unification of world is determined, and he is waiting for Yingzheng to lead government. This is so-called "time makes heroes."
In 239 B.C. Yingzheng was 21 years old, and he began to manage himself. Yingzheng first executed Lao Ai, exiled Lu Buwei, imprisoned Zhao Ji's queen mother, and killed her illegitimate son after realizing monopoly of power. He reused Li Xi, Wei Liao and others to recruit talent from all over world in preparation for unification war. With completion of Zhengguo Canal, Qin's agricultural power further increased, providing food security for unification war.
Of six eastern countries at that time, Zhao and Yan were most powerful. In early years, Zhao Guo created a powerful cavalry through Khufu's cavalry reform and archery. The Hetao Plain in its northwest could also move south to attack Qin hinterland. Although he suffered heavy losses after Battle of Changping, Zhao Guo still had famous generals such as Li Mu. After reform of King Yan Zhao, state of Yan also strengthened, annexed lands of Liaodong, expanded its territory by two thousand miles and became a powerful state. However, between Yang and Zhao in 236 BC. war broke out, which provided Qin with an opportunity to take advantage. So King of Qin sent Wang Jian and others to attack State of Zhao in name of saving Yan, and seized Zhang River basin of State of Zhao. Two years later, Qin captured Yanmen and Yunzhong Zhao again.
Map of Warring States period 236 BC
After Qin captured Yanmen and Yunzhong Zhao, Zhao's cavalry could no longer march south from Hetao Plain to attack Guanzhong, and Qin had nothing to worry about. At this time, State of Qin began to consider eliminating weak South Korea and State of Wei, and two countries competed to bribe State of Qin for land in order to survive for a while, which undoubtedly hastened their demise. Since South Korea has blocked Qin's eastward advance, South Korea must fall first. In 230 BC the prince sent Neishiten to attack Korea, and Korea perished.
Korea perished 230 years ago
Subsequently, state of Qin began a war of annihilation against state of Zhao. In 229 BC King Qin sent Wang Jian from Jingxing to lay siege to Handan. Zhao Guo sent Li Mu and Sima Shang to save siege, but Zhao Wang fell into Qin's divorce plan and killed Li Mu, so Zhao Guo's defeat was sealed. In 228 BC The Qin army defeated Zhao army, Handan fell, and Zhao state perished. However, remnants of Zhao State fled to Dai County and established another Dai State.
In 228 BC. e. Warring States period ended and Dai kingdom delayed
After fall of State of Zhao, State of Yan seemed to realize that his lips were dead and his teeth were cold, and began to unite to represent country, but it was too late. In 227 BC Wang Jian defeated Dai army in one fell swoop. At that time, government of Yan State was led by hardliner Prince Dan, who struggled to turn tide and sent Jing Ke to kill King Qin, but his plan failed. The King of Qin was furious and ordered Qin army to go on an expedition and captured capital of State of Yan in one fell swoop, and State of Yan was forced to move to Liaodong. Later, King Yang killed Prince Dan in order to survive.
In 226 B.C. state of Yan retreated to Liaodong
South Korea has almost no glory in history of Warring States period, but state of Wei was once overlord in early Warring States period. The Wei state previously held two tracts of land in Shanxi and Henan, Shanxi region could directly threaten Qin state, and Henan region could compete for hegemony in Central Plains. Its capital, Dalian, is center of water transportation in Central Plains, so Wei's economy is strong and talents are plentiful. It is a pity that State of Wei has been a weak and mediocre monarch since time of Wei Wenhou. The country continued to decay and brain drain was severe. Eventually, State of Wei fell into decline under attacks of State of Qi and State of Qin. The area continued to shrink. In 225 BC Qin state sent Wang Ben to attack Wei state, and the Wei state perished.
In 225 B.C. beams were flooded and state of Wei perished
At this point, all three Jin dynasties have declared their decline, leaving only state of Yang in northeast, state of Qi in east, and state of Chu in south. Among Three Kingdoms, only State of Chu can pose some threat to State of Qin. Therefore, King Qin decided to destroy State of Chu first to avoid expedition's disturbance. Although state of Chu was large at time, it was underdeveloped and sparsely populated. The country also introduced a system of enfeoffment that failed to achieve centralization. Coupled with fact that monarch has no enterprise, Chu is strong outside country and capable in middle.
In 225 B.C. King Qin sent Li Xin to lead an army of 200,000 to attack state of Chu. Li Xin was overconfident and smug after several victories, but failed. Later, King of Qin sent Wang Jian to lead 60 soldiers (probably including all logistics personnel) to march south, destroyed main forces of state of Chu, captured Shouchun, satellite capital of state of Chu, and state of Chu perished.
In 223 B.C. state of Chu perished
After fall of state of Chu, state of Qin already had a capital to go separately. Therefore, on one hand, State of Qin sent troops to south, south of Yangtze River, and on other hand, it headed north to attack Liaodong. In Jiangnan region, there are still remnants of Yue kingdom. In middle of Warring States period, state of Chu seized a large tract of land from state of Yue, and state of Yue disintegrated, and its remnants retreated south of Yangtze River. After destroying Chu, State of Qin sent Meng Tian and others to attack Jiangnan and finally destroyed State of Yue. In past, we often said that Qin Dynasty destroyed six countries, but in fact it destroyed seven countries, because Yue was also an important country, which even entailed subsequent conquest of Baiyue. Pacifying Jiangnan, Qin state sent Wang Ben to attack Liaodong and destroy Yan state. Returning to army, Qin army, by way, destroyed Dai Guo.
In 222 BC. e. state of Qin destroyed Yan and Yue
By 221 B.C. state of Qi in Central Plains did not disappear. The State of Qi was originally one of overlords of Warring States period, once stood side by side with State of Qin as Eastern Emperor, waged war to destroy Yan and Song, and served as leader of Eastern Alliance against Qin for a long time. a lot of time. The state of Qi enjoys benefits of fish and salt and has strong economic power. However, Qi's mountains and rivers are safe and surrounded on three sides by powerful enemies, greatly limiting his own expansion. In end, war of five countries attacking Qi, led by State of Yang, seriously swallowed State of Qi, and then State of Qi withdrew from list of United States and no longer supported other countries, which also accelerated death of all countries. In 221 BC Qin army entered state of Qi, and state of Qi immediately surrendered. Thus ended story of Seven Heroes of the Warring States Period.
In 221 BC. e. state of Qi was destroyed and Qin dynasty was founded
Of course, destruction of Qi does not mean that unification war is completely over. In north, Xiongnu seized opportunity to occupy Hetao Plain and Henan (Ordos Plateau), while in south, remnants of Yue kingdom retreated to Baiyue. Therefore, when Qin Shi Huang founded Qin Dynasty, he conquered Xiongnu in north and conquered Baiyue in south, and finally regained Hetao Plain, seized land of Henan, and included basins of Minjiang and Pearl Rivers in his territory. Thereafter, Qin Dynasty stationed 300,000 soldiers in northern part of Great Wall and immigrated 500,000 soldiers to south of the Five Ranges.
The territory of Qin Dynasty
Of course, unification war of Qin dynasty also caused great damage to Qin dynasty. Years of war led to a serious consumption of resources in state of Qin, and peasants were in poverty for a long time. Combined with continuous corvée labor after Unification War, Qin dynasty finally entered a period of collapse. In any case, unification war of Qin Dynasty ran out of steam, but its achievements lasted forever. The later Han Dynasty created hundreds of years of glory on basis of territory of Qin Dynasty, and all subsequent dynasties seized territory within unification of Qin Dynasty as basis. The main drive, this is greatness Qin dynasty.