From Xia Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, China has experienced 4,000 years of history and more than 10 dynasties. We can learn about time, founders and capitals of main dynasties of China through representatives of dynasty, but this representative of dynasty also has some errors. Another is that it is too rigid, and year when monarch proclaims himself emperor is beginning of dynasty. For example, Cao Cao was supposed to found state of Wei, but Cao Pi was founder when he was not proclaimed emperor. Not only is this inconsistent with actual situation at time, it is inconsistent with spelling method "Hanshu" and "Three Kingdoms". Therefore, we need to conduct a comprehensive revision of representatives of dynasty in ancient China.1. Representatives of dynasty in pre-Qin period
First of all, this is schedule of Xia, Shang and Zhou. It is well known that schedule of Xia, Shang and Zhou's dating projects is wrong, or at least inaccurate. In fact, first general history of China's chronology - "Bamboo Book Chronicles" has three generations of Wang Biao in China. Unfortunately, Bamboo Book Chronicles are long lost. The Bamboo Book Chronicle transmitted today is a fake book called Real Bamboo Book Chronicle, which is not credible.
Many scholars have collected some remnants of "Bamboo Book Chronicles" in vastness of classics. Fortunately, there are time records of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, among which Xia dynasty is 471 years old, Shang dynasty is 496 years old. , and Western Zhou Dynasty is 257 years old. Just like representatives of dynasty of ancient Egypt, he is also representative of Manito dynasty "History of Egypt." Now "History of Egypt" is also lost, and people have also found remnants from other books. Therefore, taking study of Ancient Egypt as an example, one can certainly use data of ancient book Bamboo Book Chronicles. The schedule calculated in this way for Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties is as follows:
Xia Dynasty: 1992 - 1522 BC e.
The Shang Dynasty: 1522 - 1027 BC e.
Western Zhou Dynasty: 1027 - 771 BC e.
Let's talk about "Eastern Zhou" here. Generally speaking, Eastern Zhou is not a dynasty, but simply one of many Princes of Spring and Autumn and Warring States. After Zhou Ping Wang moved east, Zhou Wang lost his ability to command princes. At same time, monarchs of Chu, Wu, and Yue of Spring and Autumn period publicly proclaimed themselves kings and no longer assumed title of King of Zhou; The seven heroes of Warring States period, Zhongshan and Song all proclaimed themselves kings, and there were no nominal co-rulers of Zhou kings. In 256 BC The Eastern Zhou dynasty was destroyed by Qin state, but Warring States period was not yet over. Therefore, we usually use "Spring and Autumn" and "Warring States" as name of dynasty of this era.
However, there are different opinions about time of Spring and Autumn and Warring States from ancient times to present day. At present, most books consider 476 years ago as dividing line of Spring, Autumn and Warring States. This is time that Guo Moro accepted and he basically became an authority. However, this statement is also very problematic, because Goujian's extermination of Wu took place in 473 BC. If 476 years ago were used as a dividing point, then wouldn't King Goujian Yue be one of "five hegemons". spring-autumn period. The new division method proposed by Professor Jin Jingfang used 453 years as dividing line of Spring, Autumn and Warring States, because this year Han, Zhao and Wei destroyed Zhi family, and in fact three families were divided into Jin, and formed basically a situation in which seven heroes of Warring States found themselves side by side. In accordance with principle of periodization of modern historiography. Then time of Spring, Autumn and Warring States:
Spring and autumn: 770–453 BC e.
Warring States: 453 BC e. – 221 BCII. Chronology of Qin, Han, Wei, Jin, North and South
The chronology of Qin dynasty is not problematic, it was set to 221 BC. and fell in 206 BC. The timing of founding of Western Han Dynasty is also not a problem, in 202 BC. The timing of decline of Western Han dynasty is controversial. Some people consider Wang Mang's proclamation as emperor as a sign of decline of Western Han Dynasty and believe that Wang Mang founded a "new dynasty". Some people think that Wang Mang also belonged to Western Han Dynasty. In fact, whether it is Wang Mang era (AD 9-23) or Xuan Han and Chimei Han belong to Western Han Dynasty, just like Wu Zetian era belongs to Tang Dynasty. Because, generally speaking, it is still ruled by Liu family aristocracy, which is very continuous, and capital is also in Chang'an.
With regard to Eastern Han Dynasty, it is generally believed that in 220 AD, Cao Pi proclaimed himself emperor and died. In fact, Eastern Han Dynasty had long since perished, and only a puppet emperor remained. The "Book of Later Han Dynasty" did not include Cao Cao, and "Three Kingdoms" began with Emperor Wu of Wei, which shows that ancients believed that Wei State was founded by Cao Cao. So what year was it installed? The Eastern Han Dynasty came to an end in 189. This year, Dong Zhuo entered Luoyang, abolished emperor, and took new puppet emperor Han Xiandi to Chang'an, where he burned Luoyang. This announced end of Eastern Han Dynasty, and next few years were hand-to-hand fights between princes, similar to "argument between Chu and Han". We call subsequent era “Three Kingdoms era”, because struggle between princes eventually developed into a confrontation between three families of Wei, Shu and Wu. The three families of Wei, Shu and Wu cannot be considered as a dynasty, but can only be considered as a separate regime, and The name of dynasty is Three Kingdoms.
The Three Kingdoms were destroyed by Western Jin dynasty, but this death was not replaced in one year, but managed to cross over. The founding of Western Jin Dynasty is usually dated to 266, when Sima Yan proclaimed himself emperor. The Gaoping Mausoleum Incident in 249 is to mark beginning of Western Jin Dynasty. This year, Sima Yi staged a coup and replaced Cao's rule. In 263, Sima family destroyed vassal state, and it would be wrong to say that Wei state destroyed Shu. In 280, Western Jin dynasty again destroyed Wu, officially ending Three Kingdoms. In The Three Kingdoms, Cao Fang, Cao Mao, and Cao Huang, after Gaoping Mausoleum, were collected together into Three Young Emperors, which is very different from individual records of previous emperors. And first chapter of "Book of Jin" is dedicated to "The First Emperor: Emperor Gaozu Xuandi" by Sima Yi.
Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)
Western Han Dynasty (202-25 BC)
Eastern Han Dynasty (25-189)
Three Kingdoms (190–280)
Western Jin Dynasty (249-316)
After Western Jin Dynasty, there were sixteen kingdoms of Eastern Jin Dynasty, as well as Southern and Northern Dynasties. There are no problems with representatives of Eastern Jin and Southern dynasties. However, North Korea has a problem. In 534, Northern Wei dynasty fell. During this time, north was divided into two major powers, namely Yuwen and Gao. They controlled Northern Wei and Yuan respectively, which were called "Western Wei" and "Eastern Wei" in history. Later, Yuwen and Gao directly proclaimed themselves emperors, known as "Northern Zhou" and "Northern Qi". I actually think it's better to call Western Wei Dynasty and Northern Zhou Dynasty Yuwen Dynasty directly, and Eastern Wei Dynasty and Northern Qi Dynasty Gao Dynasty. North Korea and Vietnam often use surnames as dynastic names. Of course, it is not a problem to call it the Southern and Northern Dynasties in general. ("Twenty-Four Stories" did not write separate books for Western Wei and Eastern Wei, but wrote "Book of Zhou" and "Book of Northern Qi" respectively)2. The time of Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.
The time of Sui Dynasty is not a problem. The time of Tang Dynasty included Wu Zetian's "Zhou". However, timing of decline of Tang dynasty should be reconsidered. The abolition of Tang emperor Zhu Wen in 907 is usually seen as a sign of demise. This time should be shifted to 904, when Zhu Wen forced emperor to move capital to Luoyang as a sign of end, similar to Dong Zhuo's coercion of Han emperor.
The time after that is Five Dynasties and Northern Song Dynasty, there is no problem with time. However, issues of Southern Song Dynasty and Kingdom of Jin need to be discussed. The Southern Song Dynasty and Northern Song Dynasty are commonly referred to as Song Dynasty and Northern Song Dynasty. The northern half of Southern Song Dynasty then belonged to Kingdom of Jin. Even Mongolia, Southern Song Dynasty and Xixia paid tribute to Jin Kingdom. The Jin Dynasty seems to be more powerful than Southern Song Dynasty. Therefore, in history, Emperor also called Jin Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty together as Jin Yuan, and it is reasonable to think that Yuan Dynasty is successor of Jin Dynasty. The Liao, Song and Jin dynasties were considered orthodox by Yuan dynasty. Although Liao kingdom was destroyed in 1125, Yelu family established a powerful "Western Liao" in Xixia similar to Southern Song dynasty. So this era, isn't it "Later Three Kingdoms" of China, but we usually use Song Dynasty as name of this era, because Song Dynasty is most representative.
The Sui Dynasty: 581-618
Tang Dynasty: 618-904
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms: 904-979
Northern Song Dynasty: 960-1127
Southern Song Dynasty: 1127-1276
The time of Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties is not a problem at all. However, we need to pay attention to time of Yuan and Qing dynasties. In history of Yuan dynasty, Mongolia was its predecessor. In 1271, Kublai Khan proclaimed himself emperor in Beijing and changed name of country to Yuan. Only in this way did establishment of Yuan dynasty take place. The previous one was called Mongolia. Of course, if Mongolia and Yuan dynasty are named together, then they can be called "Mongyuan".
The decline of Ming dynasty is based on 1644. This year, Li Zicheng captured Beijing, and Chongzhen Emperor hanged himself. The subsequent "Nanming" can only be seen as a local separatist regime and not an orthodox dynasty.
The forerunner of Qing Dynasty was Hou Jin, founded in 1616. In 1636, Huang Taiji changed its name to Daqing. However, Nurhati and Huang Taiji had not yet reached Central Plains at that time, and they could only be seen as frontier ethnic regimes. In 1644, Dorgon captured Shanhaiguan, moved capital to Beijing with Shunzhi Emperor and again ascended throne, "Dingding Yanjing established name of world as Qing dynasty, and Shunzhi era" marked official establishment of power. Qing Dynasty. In 1912, Qing Emperor abdicated, ending Qing Dynasty.
Yuan Dynasty: 1271-1368
Ming Dynasty: 1368-1644
Qing Dynasty: 1644–1912