Speaking of Africa, many have impression of backwardness, poverty, blacks, good physical fitness and long-distance running. 20.4% Africa is second largest continent in world. powerful empires and dynasties in Africa's long history.
The first thing to talk about is ancient Egypt, especially since eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt arose earlier than any single empire in world, and it lasted from about sixteenth century BC to tenth century BC. was recognized as first empire in world. The Eighteenth Dynasty achieved countless achievements, not only closely linking Ethiopia to south and Palestine to north, but also producing history's first female emperor. The civilization of Ancient Egypt can be called largest civilization of ancient Africa. It grew to level of an empire long before unification of civilizations of other continents and left rich legacy of an ancient human civilization to future generations.
The Ptolemaic dynasty, although this dynasty was founded in Africa, it was a dynasty founded by Ptolemy I of Macedonia. The so-called Ptolemy I was originally just a general under Alexander Great in Macedonian Empire. He followed Alexander Great to fight in every direction and finally destroyed Persia, leveled Babylon and conquered Egypt. I was also called ruler of Egypt After death of Alexander Great, empire began to disintegrate, and Ptolemy became king in Egypt. The most famous member of Ptolemaic dynasty is last monarch, Cleopatra VII, known as Cleopatra VII. Antony, most powerful of Big Three, had emotional difficulties.
The Carthaginian Empire, as biggest enemy of Rome during rise, actually controlled Western Mediterranean. At its height it controlled Tunisia, Morocco, coastal regions of Algeria, and also included central Spain and Corsi in Europe. and military power, they were overlords of Mediterranean at that time. The rise of Carthage preceded Roman Republic: in early days it competed with Greece and eventually defeated Greece, but when it fell into decline, it happened to overtake fledgling Roman Empire. So there were three famous Punic wars in world history. Rome defeated strong and weak and overthrew great Carthaginian empire, as well as General Hannibal, Carthaginian god of war.
The Ghanaian Empire, or Kingdom of Ghana, was an ancient black kingdom in Africa centered on middle and upper reaches of Niger River. Its predecessor was Kingdom of Ancient Ghana, founded around 300 AD. between Senegal River and upper reaches of Niger River. Around 720, western Sultan Soninke founded Ghanaian Empire. By 1076, Murabbit kingdom had captured Ghanaian capital of Quimby and forced locals to convert to Islam. After that, Ghanaian Empire began to decline and in 1240 was annexed to Mali Empire. The Ghanaian Empire ruled region of West Africa south of Sahara Desert. Since it once monopolized gold trade in West Africa (later replaced by Mali Empire) and almost all daily life is associated with gold, Ghana Empire is also known as Golden Kingdom. Based on trade, empire expanded its sphere of power outward, controlling import of salt to north and sale of gold to south. The main part of empire's income was taxes on sale and purchase of these and other goods. During its heyday, it was an empire with many vassal states. The Arab geographer Jacobi wrote in 827: "The king of Ghana is a great king. There are gold mines in his land, and many kingdoms are under his jurisdiction." in south, some kingdoms in central Niger Delta in east and Walata, Odagost and others in north.
The richest empire in African history is also largest empire in human history, having highest distribution of wealth in world over a period of time. Legend has it that it even affected price of gold in world, treating money like dung and achieving a true sense of golden freedom. The Mali Empire annexed Ghanaian Empire in 1240 and at same time occupied all gold mining areas of Ghana. The city of Nyani was founded, continuous caravans crossed Sahara to trade with Arabs, and territory of empire stretched from rainforests in south to environs of Sudan in east and Morocco in north.
The most famous ruler of empire, Mansa Musa. It is said that when he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, he took with him 60,000 retinues, including soldiers, cooks, merchants, doctors, guards, etc., and 10,000 slaves. The most remarkable thing is that he carried 18 tons of gold with him, and spent them all way to Cairo and Mecca. As a large amount of gold entered market, it affected price of gold in Cairo and Mecca, and there was a large-scale drop that did not recover until more than ten years later. Then, in 15th and 16th centuries, Mali Empire gradually declined. The east was constantly eroded by growing Songhai vassal empire, and west was constantly invaded by Western Europeans who started the African slave trade. It finally died in 1611.
The Kingdom of Songhay-Bambara-Masina-Tukulor, after Empire of Mali, several dynasties appeared one after another in region of Niger Delta. territory and wealth of Mali Empire, Songhai Empire rose first. Initially, it was a small vassal state of Mali Empire. She rose to take advantage of Mali's decline. The west included a semi-desert area along former Ghana, and ended at Waratah in north, in south north of Yatunga kingdom south of bend of river, and in northeast to Ayer Plateau, capital of Gao. The late Songhai Empire declined due to endless expansionist wars, coupled with invasion of northern Moroccans, and eventually died out. Since Songhai Empire, there have been almost no monarchical countries in Africa.
Africa is not only made up of history of North Africa and West Africa. On other side of Great Rift Valley in East Africa, on Ethiopian Plateau, there is also a magnificent civilization. In 1270, with help of Islam, Yekuno borrowed troops from Sudan, overthrew Zakwi dynasty, declared himself a descendant of King Solomon, and established Solomon dynasty. Later, due to religious issues, it became hostile to Sudan and became independent of Islam. Over next seven hundred years, Solomon dynasty ruled Ethiopia, expanded its territory and became independent from East African Highlands. It is only country in East Africa that was never colonized and successfully resisted invasions of Italy, Ottomans, Arabs, Egypt, Sudan and other countries. Only in 1974 did pro-Soviet communist organization "Dreger" establish a temporary socialist Ethiopian military government and overthrow Ethiopian emperor, since then 705-year rule of Solomon dynasty has ended.