Situation in last years of Western Jin Dynasty
Moreover, Zhang family of Liangzhou separated Hexi Corridor and founded "Land of Liang", which in history was called "Qianliang". The Duan clan of Xianbei tribe invaded Hebei, Murong clan occupied western Liaoning, and Tuoba clan occupied Monan to establish Daigo. In Shandong, Cao Yi occupied Qingzhou, in Shanxi, Liu Yuan, a Xiongnu leader, took opportunity to stand on his own during Eight Kings Rebellion, and established a "Han" regime in Shanxi in 304. , Wang Mi in Kanto region and Shi Le in Hebei region. He also raised troops against Jin dynasty and promoted Liu Yuan to post of leader of Communist Party. As a result, three main forces continued their offensive against Luoyang. In 311, Shi Le destroyed 100,000-strong Jin main army. In same year, Liu Cong (son of Liu Yuan) captured Luoyang and captured Jin Emperor Huai. The Western Jin Dynasty was forced to move its capital to Chang'an. In 316, Liu Cong captured Chang'an, captured Emperor Jin Ming, and Western Jin dynasty fell.Second, north before unification of Qin dynasty
After fall of Western Jin Dynasty, north fell into chaos. Liu Cong occupied Shanxi and Guanzhong, Shi Le annexed Wang Mi's forces and occupied Henan and Hebei, and Wang Mi's remnants occupied Qilu. In addition, Xianbei people also began to take advantage of opportunity to go south and occupy northern part of North China. Liu Cong was very stupid, and wars often broke out, resulting in "famine in Pingyang and death in exile, five or six out of ten." After death of Liu Cong, Xiongnu civil strife, Liu Yao of Chang'an finally suppressed civil unrest, moved capital to Chang'an, changed name of country to "Zhao" and was known as "Han Zhao" in history. Since then, Guanzhong has been suffering from epidemics for several years in a row, and about 30% of inhabitants have died. Liu Yao had to relocate inhabitants of Xiqiang and Longxi inland in order to enrich population of Guanzhong and replenish strength of troops and labor force. . With over 200,000 Xiongnu and Xiqiang troops, Liu Yao was strong for some time, but a long battle seriously consumed his strength, and eventually Shi Le eliminated him in 329.
Shile belongs to Jie people, Xiongnu tribe, and comes from Shi kingdom in western regions. His family moved very early to Central Plains and integrated into Han people. At end of Western Jin Dynasty, Bingzhou officials sold slaves, and Shi Le became a slave. Later, Shi Le led a slave uprising, gathered refugees and ruled over a roost in Hebei. After fall of Western Jin Dynasty, Shi Le united tribes of Wang Mi, Wang Jun and Cao Yi, eliminated Xianbei Duan clan, defeated Liu Kun, general of Eastern Jin and Northern Expedition, and united Kanto region. . In 319, Shi Le founded state of Zhao, known in history as "Later Zhao". In 330, Shi Le destroyed "Han Zhao" and effectively united north, so he proclaimed himself an emperortorus.
Map of Late Zhao Dynasty
Shi Le is one of most prominent emperors among sixteen kingdoms. After unification of north, he organized economy and united people in order to stabilize situation of refugees, reduced taxes and encouraged agriculture and sericulture. In order to win over northern nobility, Shi Le also restored Zhongzheng nine-rank system and greatly promoted Confucianism. To mitigate ethnic conflicts, he adopted a measure of "sharing power between Hu and Han". Under rule of Shi Le, economy of north recovered to a certain extent. But after Shi Le's death, dissolute and immoral Shi Hu inherited throne, which caused Liandu uprising and Qiho uprising, and north plunged into chaos. In 349, Ran Ming, a general in Qihuo's army, destroyed "Later Zhao".
After Ran Ming was destroyed, Zhao Hou proclaimed himself emperor, country was named "Wei", and Yecheng became its capital. He invited Eastern Jin Dynasty to fight against Hulu together, but Eastern Jin Dynasty believed that Ran Ming had become emperor, so he refused to cooperate. Ran Ming insisted on supporting aristocratic Han families in ethnic matters, so he enlisted support of northern gentry, but ignored interests of poor families and gradually became isolated. At same time, Ran Ming adopted a policy of repulsing and exterminating all other ethnic groups in Central Plains, which made his ruling base very weak. Even Li Nong (Je nationality), leader of mendicant army that collaborated with him, was killed. Some people think Ran Min is a national hero, but I think he's just a shortsighted butcher.
Because he accepted "order to kill Hu", all ethnic minorities in north became Ran Min's enemies. At that time, Ran Ming and Murong Ran Ming "Qianyan" family of Xianbei nationality and Fu "Qianqin" family of Di nationality adopted a more reasonable policy in ethnic matters. First, let me introduce Murong family. During Eastern Han Dynasty, Xianbei tribe was strong and prosperous, and Tangshi Huai KhandeclinedXianbei was divided into three parts: eastern, middle and western, among which Yuwen clan belonged to east, Murong clan to central part, and Tuoba clan to west. At end of Western Jin Dynasty, Murong family occupied Liaodong and became a secessionist force. The Murong family continued to recruit refugees in western Liaoning, gave land for cultivation and reduced taxes, making western Liaoning a haven for people of all ethnic groups.
In 349, Murong Jun attacked Hou Zhao, captured Yuzhou and began to enter Central Plains. Since then, Murong and Ran Min have been arguing furiously. In 352, Murong Jun eliminated Ran Ming and unified Kanto region, so he proclaimed himself emperor in Yecheng and established state of Yan, known in history as "Qianyang". Murong Jun was ambitious and tried to gather 1.5 million warriors to destroy former Qin and Eastern Jin, but he himself died in 360 while watching army. Thereafter, Murong Ke assisted in government, and Qianyang generally maintained a stable situation and defeated Huangwen's Northern Expeditionary Army under Eastern Jin dynasty. After death of Murong Ke in 367, Qianyang also began to decline.Second, unification of former Qin Dynasty and Northern Wei Dynasty.
The former Qin Dynasty was founded by Di Clan's Fu Clan. The last Fu family lived in Yongzhou area and belonged to "Han Zhao" regime. After Shi Le destroyed Han and Zhao, he moved Guanzhong Haoqiang and Rong Di to Guangdong. After Ran Ming proclaimed himself emperor and issued "Order to Kill Hu", Fu Hong began to lead Di people to return to Guanzhong, absorbing large numbers of other ethnic groups and refugees along way, reaching 100,000 people. In 351, Fu Hong arrived in Guanzhong and proclaimed himself emperor, establishing State of Qin, known in history as "Former Qin". In 354, General Huang Wen of Eastern Jin dynasty entered Guanzhong as part of Northern Expedition and failed.
In 357, Fu Jian inherited throne using Wang Meng, Deng Qiang, Quan Yi, Yang An, Zhu Xun and other famous ministers and generals, for them to work hard. The Jingshui Canal was excavated, taxes were reduced and exempted, and Confucianism became widespread, establishing a single rule of sixteen countries. He is known in history as "Guanlong Qingyan, people are prosperous and happy." . Fu Jian then began to unify north. In 370 he eliminated Qian Yan; in 373 he captured Hanzhong, Bashu and Nanzhong; merge with Kucha in west, embrace Xiangyang in south, and complete desert in north." unite world.
After Fu Jian unified north, he led an army of 800,000 in Southern Expedition to Eastern Jin Dynasty in 383. Since then, north has not been stable and various ethnic groups have not yet integrated, so this expedition is clearly too impatient. As a result, Fu Jian was defeated by Eastern Jin Dynasty at Battle of Feishui and situation in north worsened. The Eastern Jin Dynasty continued to send troops and regained south of Yellow River and Bashu region; Murong family of Xianbei family took opportunity to rebuild country, and "Hou Yan", "Xi Yan", "Southern Yan" and "Northern Yan", "Big Xia" appeared in succession; ethnic groups in Northwest seized opportunity to establish regimes such as "Houliang", "Southern Liang", "Northern Liang" and "Xiliang" in Hexi Corridor. Thus North was again divided.
The situation in later Sixteen Kingdoms
In 386, Yao Chang, leader of Qiang tribe, killed Fu Jian and proclaimed himself emperor. Yao Chang continued to promote benevolent government and promote Confucianism in Guanzhong, and he was also a rare Mingjun. In 416, Yao Chang died and Eastern Jin dynasty took opportunity to attack Guanzhong and Later Qin dynasty perished.
The reunification of north was accomplished by Tuoba clan of Xianbei tribe. Prior to early unification, Tuoba Shiyiqiang established Dai kingdom in 338. In 376 Fu Jian attacked Dai and Dai was destroyed. In 386, Tuoba Gui, grandson of Tuoba Shiyiqiang, rallied old tribe and restored Dai kingdom in Monan. After founding of Northern Wei Dynasty, Huan, Xiaguo, Beiyan, and Beiliang were successively destroyed, and north was unified in 439, and history of Sixteen Kingdoms officially came to an end. The Northern Wei Dynasty carried out Sinicization measures in north to recuperate and rejuvenate, and country was ruled by Confucianism, which eventually caused ethnic minorities who entered Central Plains to assimilate into Han people.