In 682, Ashina Gudulu Jianya Heisha, by name of Jibalishi Khan, announced emergence of Türkic Khanate. After that, he returned his teeth to Dujinshan, basically restoring former territory of East Turkestan. In second year, Ashina Gudulu sent troops from both sides, defeating Huihe and Tang armies respectively, which stabilized situation. In 683, Tang Gaozong passed away. In order to strengthen regime, Wu Zetian was forced to change his foreign policy from attack to defense, and two countries formally clashed.
After that, in order to bring about revival of Turkic hegemony, Jiedi Lishi Khan launched a new foreign policy, which we summarize as "persecution in south, conquest in north, and conquest in west." Southern persecution is a small-scale attack on Tang Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty was busy with political strife during this period and didn't have time to take care of outsiders. Even a little can put a lot of pressure; Beifu to stabilize Mobey and allow Ti Le to join your camp; The western expedition is to send troops to western regions in an attempt to unite Turkic Khanate.
First of all, let's talk about Southern Revolt. In 683, Cheng Wuting served as Shan Yudao's pacification ambassador and planned to send troops on Northern Expedition to destroy Turks. However, Gaozong died and this plan was thwarted. Since then, Turks have gone south many times to attack Shanxi and other places. The Tang Dynasty army was in a passive state with more defeats and fewer victories. The struggle between two sides during this period is mainly as follows:
In 685, Ashi De Yuanzhen and others invaded Shuo, Dai, and other prefectures. Chunyu Chuping was ordered to fight, but he suffered a crushing defeat that resulted in over 5,000 deaths.
In 686, 3,000 Turks invaded border, and Tang Dynasty sent Goryeo Heizhi Changzhi to attack and defeat Turks.
In 687, Turks attacked Changping and Shozhou. The Tang Dynasty appointed Hei Chi Changzhi as general manager of Yanran Road marching army.
In 687, Tang Dynasty took advantage of victory and pursued it, preparing to wipe out Eastern Turks in one fell swoop, and sent Quan Baobi and others on a Northern Expedition supported by Hei Chi Chang Zhi. However, Cuan Baobi was greedy for merit and was attacked by Turks for over 20 miles. 13,000 elite soldiers were destroyed.
After surviving this failure, Wu Zetian was furious, but it was useless, so she had to change Gu Jilu's name to "Buzulu" and become a laughing stock. Since then, Zetian had no more plans for Northern Expedition and was forced to deal with it.
Second, it's Bei Fu. At that time, most powerful force in Mobei was Huihe tribe, whose leader posed as a khan, and also served as protector of Anbei during canonization of Tang dynasty, was a relatively loyal and reliable ally of Tang dynasty. However, at this time there was another drought in Maubey: "The fields are all red, and grass is scarce, so sheep and horses will die and eat ten to seventy-eight." Thiele's ministries were in crisis. Jiedi Lishi Khan took opportunity to provoke various ministries to rebel against the Huihe.
In 685, Tonluo and Pugu tribes began a civil war against Huihe. Huihe was isolated and helpless and turned to Tang Dynasty for help. The Tang Dynasty then sent Liu Jingtong to lead an army in Hexi region to march north, and ordered Jinshan Du Hutian to raise his name and send an army of ten families to Jinshan in western regions to march east. Having received order, two armies cooperated with each other and quickly defeated Tong Luo and Pugu. However, these Western Turkic troops were very poorly disciplined and hard to contain. They conquered and pillaged all way. After defeating Tongluo and Pugu tribes, they directly swept away Huihe tribe, causing chaos in Mobei. After this war, power of Huihe was greatly weakened, and Turks were able to seize opportunity to conquer.
Distributing various parts of Mobei
Finally, Zhengxi. After Tie Le Rebellion uprising, Tian Yangming was fired from his post and interrogated for "indiscriminately massacring Hui tribe." Thus, ten family tribes in Jinshan are not allowed to perform Hajj. The deeds of Wu Zetian were not rewarded, which caused discontent among Western Turks. In 686, an uprising broke out among Western Turks led by Ashin Tagen.
In order to restore order in Western Regions, Wu Zetian canonized Ashin Yuanqing, son of Ashin Mishe, as Khan of Second Xingbei, and concurrently served as guardian of Kunling, in charge of fifth and sixth departments of left wing of Western Turks, and ordered him to recruit Ashin for surrender . As a result, surrender of Ashina Yuanqing was unsuccessful, but "Four Cities of Anxi" were also captured. After that, Wu Zetian canonized son of Ashin Buzhen, Ashin Khuseruo, as second successor of khan and protector of Menchi. Four cities. In 689 Tubo again defeated the Tang dynasty and all four cities of Anxi were occupied by Tubo except Suye.
Little Leaf City
At this time, later Turkic Zeba Lishi Khan took opportunity to send troops into chaotic western regions. Ashina Khuseruo was defeated and forced to leave land and return to Tang Dynasty. Since then, ten families of Western Turks have dispersed and died out. The troops of Jibalish Khan reached city of Suye all way, but they were opposed by Uzhile, Tukish tribe, so Tukish tribe began to become leader of Western Turkic tribes. Sleep well.". In 691, Jibalishi Khan and Ashide Yuanzhen went west to conquer Tukishi, as a result of which Ashide Yuanzhen was defeated and killed, and Jibalishi Khan was also seriously wounded and died upon returning home. This marks represents final collapse of dream of a post-Turkic unification of Turks.
During Turkic Expedition to West, Tang Dynasty also sent Monk Huayi as general manager of Xinpingdao March, who led a 200,000-strong army in Northern Expedition, but tribe did not encounter Turkic army, so they recorded an impeccable service in Shanyu Taile And also . After some time, he brought a 200,000-strong army here in Northern Campaign, but he also did not see Turkic troops. It can be seen that Turkic army was moving west. If Seng Huayi had taken opportunity to cross desert at this time and set up an ambush to prevent withdrawal of Turkic army, Turkic Khanate would surely have collapsed. But Seng Huayi only wanted to bring his teacher back to court and didn't want to take too much risk, so he missed this once-in-a-thousand-year opportunity.
Don't miss this opportunity, never miss it again. In 692, Mochuo, younger brother of Jielili Shi Khan, inherited khan's throne and established title of Shengtian Gudulu Khan. He brought post-Turks' national power to a peak, and celebrated martial arts he created did not stop until later Tang Xuanzong period, which put enormous pressure on Tang Dynasty's border defenses and was also an important cause of "Anshi Uprising" in Tang Dynasty.
Because Tukishi showed great energy in resisting post-Turks, Tukishi became leader of Western Turks, and finally Tukishi restored khanate in western regions, known in history as "Tukish Khanate". Western Turkic Khanate. Later, Tukish Khanate played an important role in resisting invasion of Arab Empire.Recommended reading
Rise and fall of Turkic Khanate: (1) Why did Turks revive?
Rise and fall of post-Turkic khanate: (2) Turkic renaissance, situation in Mobey deteriorated dramatically