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William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

William FitzSteven, also a Londoner, whose famous description of London was first attempt to locate cult of Thomas in city of his birth.

In 1173-1175, Fitzstephan wrote a description of city and its customs, and also wrote foreword to his Life of Saint Thomas.

This image is generally considered to be living as a separate being, and with some justification as it creates a rather lengthy birth scene and Thomas himself is largely absent.

As many historians have pointed out, there are no biblical references in preface, but classical authors are often used, and entire work is a classical tribute to city.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

Thomas appears only at beginning and end, apparently "testifying to greatness of London", rather than being clearly an integral part of work, however this argument is more valid for this work, since he was discovered centuries after its creation, it was removed from life, reinforcing later medieval civic pride.

The author believes that: Fitzstephan's praise should be seen in context of his life, Thomas's upbringing in London is also described with rich classical references, but in terms of his dedication, and is implied. The vast majority are biblical.

Thus, London builds on and transcends heritage of classical Rome through his Christian faith, just as Thomas was able to develop and transcend his London upbringing through his devotion as an archbishop.

It is important to note that in order to understand nature of the cult in London as compared to its manifestations in Canterbury, Fitzstephan explains that "St. Thomas may have glorified both cities: London Rising and Canterbury Sunset."

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

Similarly, a popular hymn from late twelfth century describes it as "The Light of Londoners".

Therefore, city has changed rapidly and noticeably from city in which Saint Thomas grew up, and city in which he "rises" is itself on rise.

After his death, Thomas will become protector of reborn metropolis, joining or even replacing St. Paul as city's patron. This is most clearly depicted in seal of City of London, earliest mention being in 1219.

The double-sided seal depicts St. Paul on front and St. Thomas on back, with St. Paul standing over city with a raised sword as seen from south, and St. Thomas sitting majestically over city. as viewed from north, with laity and clergy on either side. The staff begged him.

Especially noteworthy on either side of seal are cathedral's towering spiers around massive central St. Paul's Cathedral, in which St. Thomas has a famous chapel and altarpiece, all rebuilt from city in late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. part of centuries.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

The combination of Thomas, citizen, clergy, city and church echoes Fitzstephan's depiction of present and future of Christianity in London and similarly transcends glory of classical Rome.

Thomas is depicted here not in more usual image of his martyrdom, as he is on seal of archbishop and city of Canterbury, but after: resurrection in city of his birth.

Since cult of Thomas is still an integral part of business, reconstruction began around 1176 under financial direction of Peter, Reverend of St. Mary's Church, Colchurch, where Thomas was baptized.

The bridge was financed by charitable donations from brotherhoods and guilds established for this purpose, central church dedicated to Saint Thomas was center of these charities.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

Derek Keane noted that there is no evidence that he was a designer or builder, but he was original caretaker of Bridge Land Endowment Fund and his relationship with project lasted three decades until his death in 1205. , four years before bridge was completed, he was buried in Church of St. Thomas on Central Bridge, which also suggests that it was built as a main attraction.

At least in first half of thirteenth century caretaker, together with Confraternity of St. Thomas and priest of bridge church, managed income and maintenance of bridge. where supplies were stored at time.

The Bridge Trust seal shows images of Saint Thomas, majestic and martyred, on front and back, from earliest surviving late twelfth century until 1542, when it was replaced by images of Thomas Becket engraved inside."

The stone bridge was clearly needed by city, but from 1170s driving force and religious center of project was its nascent patron saint.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

The most intimate place of worship in London is home believed to be Thomas' birthplace, former property of Gilbert Beckett in Cheapside. It is unclear whether site acquired religious significance in early days of Saint Thomas cult.

It is clear that after Thomas' death it remained a private residence, inherited by his sister Agnes and then by her son or nephew Theobald de Heller Adams, and passed to his son Thomas by 1220s .

The first explicit mention of place of birth is in an undated charter of first two decades of thirteenth century, possibly in connection with preparation of a translation of body of St. ·Thomas de Haverell maintains over 20 field duty stations each year.

Because of expenditure of Lord of Capital on "the land where St. Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury was born, in parish of Blessed Mary de Colechurch", land was "purchased by citizens of London for purpose of building there a chapel in memory of Thomas Martyr".

By beginning of thirteenth century, 'citizens of London' had also acquired property around St Mary's Church in Colchurch, possibly as part of a 'plan to control urban areas associated with St Thomas'.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

In 1227, Thomas de Helles gave birthplace of St. Thomas to masters and brothers of knights of hospital of St. Thomas in Akko to establish a hospital.

Community dedicated to Knights Hospitaller of St. Thomas, was founded in Acre in 1191, probably by William Reverend Ralph de Disetto with support of King Richard in gratitude for his safe journey to Holy Land.

The order never had more than four chambers, its movement in Holy Land was hampered by poverty of its foundations, and in 1227 order was submitted to Teutonic rule by Peter de Rocher, Bishop of Winchester. des Roches) reorganized into a Military Order while in Holy Land.

Thomas de Helles' donation was less of an endowment fund and more of a symbolic involvement of the St. Thomas family, although throughout its history Oba has sought to emphasize this particular aspect of its funds.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

Of course, Thomas de Helles was not wealthy enough to support religious community from his own income, and earliest land allotments are recorded only in 1230s.

Presumably, until this time, Knights Hospitaller used church of St. Mary of Colchurch. Thus, seemingly personal nature of foundation's charter itself obscures more corporate commitments.

Perhaps because of its later success as a Merchant's House, medieval hospital was always considered small and poor, an opinion that seems to have collapsed due to mismanagement in early fourteenth and early sixteenth centuries.

However, hospital has a significant portfolio of properties in Cheapside area, including grants from St Mary's Collechurch and other lands in Stratford, Wapping, Stepney and Doncaster.

The lands administered on behalf of knights in Ireland and Cyprus probably did not generate any income for house, early sixteenth century accounting records show that the hospital's annual income came from London. £230 for properties in , and £171 elsewhere, making it one of wealthiest hospitals in England.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

If anything, hospital was a victim of its own popularity, spending same year £24 on bread, £34 on ale and beer and £112 on hospitality, not counting staff and allowances.

The difficulties faced by house are not result of Londoners' lack of interest in its function, symbolism or presence, as hospital is undoubtedly central to city life.

Although wider civil ceremonies associated with hospitals in late Middle Ages are discussed below, we must note that by fourteenth century St. Pray for regulation to close Cheapside Market.

The difficulty of founding a house in central London in early thirteenth century, when even with patronage of Peter de Roche it was difficult to obtain large donations of land and resources sufficient to attract famous birthplace of St. Thomas. will inevitably attract attention, which seems to be source of hospital's problems.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

Another major civic undertaking in century after St. Thomas's death was construction in 1230s or 1240s of what became known as Great Conduit, a hospital, and a citywide terminus. water system outside of Mary Colchurch.

Derek Keane noted that location of Great Pipeline in eastern part of Cheapside, rather than more practical central location, suggested that it was connected to under construction St. Thomas Hospital. at that time, enterprise of “obvious citizen” arose from here, associated with patron saint of city.

The Great Pipeline could never provide water to more than a small proportion of its citizens, but had a "deep religious and symbolic significance" and certainly became a landmark of city, and site of many of city's later medieval spectacles stations, we can go further and look at location and construction of pipeline in light of St. Thomas's long association with Blessed Water.

Furthermore, late medieval legend says that by time of Thomas' death, the spring in Canterbury Cathedral had changed color from milky to blood red five times.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

It is tempting to think that of coronation banquets and other important royal and civic events, perhaps most notable were accession of Edward I in 1273 and return of Henry V from Agincourt in 1415strong>.

Another aspect of St. Thomas' patronage of London in thirteenth century was his association with Tower of London on night of St. George's Day in 1241, as Matthew Paris (Matthew Paris). As it is written, St. Thomas appeared in a vision to priest, stood at newly rebuilt wall of tower and struck it with his crocodile.

An employee accompanying archbishop of Saints explained: "The holy martyr Thomas, a Londoner, considered walls an insult and prejudice against Londoners and therefore destroyed them irrevocably.

The clerk went on to say that if St. Thomas had not done this, his recently deceased successor, St. Edmund of Abingdon, would have done so, and that morning townspeople awoke to find walls had collapsed.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

Henry III expanded outer defensive walls of Tower of London, doubling its size during a conflict with city barons, which "was not so much to protect London as to control it."

Thus, reference to St Edmund as an anti-Royalist saint is easy to explain, and Matthew Paris, in his description of Becket's vision, points out some of Londoners' misgivings.

According to Matthew Paris, vision occurred a year after an earthquake damaged walls and gatehouse, and there is strong archaeological and documentary evidence to support reconstruction after collapse in 1240/1241. The city wall, therefore, vision represents, or at least echoes of, a real historical event.

Thomas' participation here reinforces his preeminence as protector of city and its freedoms, even over the newer and probably more popular Cult of Saint Edmund.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

After accession of Edward I, between 1275 and 1279, new Watergate was built on a grand scale, with royal apartments on ground floor, as well as tiled floors, stained glass and riverside luxury, for example , painted statues on walls.

The current impressive building is called St Thomas' Tower, which has led to some speculation that it was named after a chapel dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury in an attempt to propitiate him and prevent a repeat of destruction of 1240.

Medieval names of various towers are known to vary: in Edwardian era, St. Thomas' Tower was often called Watergate. It is said that already in 1278 tower was divided into halls and chambers, and in 1339 and 1344, room was sanctuary of chamberThome martiris.

William Fitzstephan: The birth and rise to greatness of Thomas in London

Parnell argues that space commonly known as St. Thomas's chapel or lecture hall was too small for that function, given dedication of Edward I, but records from 1339 show that St. royal halls. , which likely reduced size of former.

The name of entire building "St. Thomas' Tower" dates back to 1531. This is earliest name currently more commonly used for Watergate. traitor's path to crown, but also points to renaming of tower dedicated to holy royal rival.


L. Jewitt and W.H. St. John Hope, Company Plates and Coats of Arms in City Offices in England and Wales

Life of Saint Thomas by William Fitzstephan

Watergate Incident is a scandal and even more corrupt, Li Hui.

Lessons from Watergate Incident. Guo Rujun

What happened to "Watergate Incident"? Jiefu

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