China originally meant capital of country, but later changed meaning to Central Plains, and it can also be called Central Plains Dynasty. Under Qing Dynasty, China officially became name of country. Based on Qing Dynasty territorial map, we can obtain traditional Chinese territorial map with minor modifications, which includes Central Plains, South, Northeast, Mongolia, Western Regions, and Qinghai-Tibet. Among them, Central Plains and south belong to agricultural civilization zone, and other areas belong to nomadic zone. China is also a country composed mainly of farmers and nomadic peoples.
Qing dynasty territory
The Central Plains region is Central Plains in a broad sense, mainly Huang Huai Hai Basin region. Its territory extends from Yinshan Mountains in north, Yumen and Yang Passes in west, and Qinling and Huaihe River in south. The climate belongs to temperate monsoon climate. It is one of origins of Chinese civilization. The earliest dynasties in China were based mainly in Central Plains. The Central Plains region is bounded by Tongguan and Shanxi-Shaanxi Grand Canyon and is divided into two parts: Kanto (Northern China) and Kangxi (Hexi). In Kansai area, Guanzhong Plain is center of gravity, in northwest are Hexi Corridor, Ningxia Plain and Hetao District as a buffer zone from nomadic peoples, Qinling Mountains, where one man guards pass and ten thousand men cannot open it. We can say that this is a country of four fortresses, and only one side controls princes. Therefore, Guanzhong has long been chosen as site of foundation of ancient capital. The Kanto area gave birth to civilizations of Xia and Shang dynasties, and is also main area of operation of Six Kingdoms. Because of fertile North China Plain, it has long been economic center of ancient China and an important grain-producing area. The early ancient dynasties mainly used Guanzhong plain as a political center, so they chose Luoyang in Kanto region as their economic center. Firstly, they could control Kanto region, and secondly, they could get enough food support.
The Southern Region is always south of Huaihe River in Qinling Mountains, north of Indochina Peninsula, and west of Hengduan Mountains, and generally refers to Yangtze and Pearl River basins. This area is one of birthplaces of Chinese civilization, whether it is upper, middle or lower Yangtze River, early civilizations were born here. However, due to hot climate, rugged terrain, dense rivers and lakes, and extensive forests in ancient southern region, it was also difficult to develop most of southern region, so level of development was very uneven. With migration of population to south, south constantly developed, starting from late Tang Dynasty, south gradually became economic center of country. In particular, South can be divided into five regions: Bashu, Yunnan-Guizhou, Central China, East China, and Lingnan. Bashu is among them. Central China and East China were earliest developed. And Yunnan Guizhou is the last to develop.
In Mongolian region, Daxingan Mountains were named in east, Altai Mountains in west, Mount Yinshan or Great Wall in south, and area of the Angara River north of Lake Baikal in north. deserts in antiquity. The climate of Mongolian Highlands is temperate continental, very cold in winter and dry all year round. Vegetation in this area is sparse and desert is widespread, and people living here are mostly nomads. Due to erratic migration of nomadic peoples and unstable production, they often pillaged nearby areas by force, which often becomes a great enemy of Central Plains dynasty, and war with Central Plains continues. In ancient times, Gobi Desert or Yinshan Mountains served as border, and desert was divided into two parts: Mobei and Monan, where agricultural and nomadic peoples compete. During Qing Dynasty, Monan became Inner Mongolia and Mobei became Outer Mongolia.
The western regions located west of Yumen Pass, south of Altai Mountains, north of Kunlun Mountains, east of Congling and Balkhash Lake, are called Western Regions because they are located in westernmost part of China. The western regions also have a continental climate, but compared to Mongolian highlands, natural conditions of western regions are better. There is water from melting of ice and snow, which has a beneficial effect on agricultural production, so inhabitants here mainly live half by agriculture, half by cattle breeding. Although natural conditions of western regions are not better, western regions are located at crossroads of Chinese civilization, Indian civilization, Persian civilization, Arab civilization, European civilization and Slavic civilization. It is often a place where major civilizations and cultures communicate and spread.
Northeast China, also known as "Manchuria", stretches from Shanhaiguan in south to Outer Khingan in north, to Greater Khingan in west, and to Sakhalin in east. "white mountains and black water". The climate in Northeast China is very cold, but water is plentiful, terrain is flat, and food is rich. The northeast region as a whole can be divided into three parts. Among them, Heilongjiang River Basin, with a harsh cold climate, was an area where fishing and hunting peoples lived in ancient times. Sushen, Fuyu, Mohe, Jurchen and other ethnic groups originated from here. In upper reaches of Liaohe River basin, climate is relatively warm, but there is not enough rainfall, so this is an area of nomad activity. In history, Xianbei, Khitan and other ethnic groups originated from here. Liaodong District is best agricultural area in northeast China. Thus, ancient Central Plains Dynasties could usually only reach Liaodong area. If they want to rule Northeast, they must first control Liaodong.
The Qinghai-Tibet area is an active territory of Qiang people. The altitude here is high, and climate is very cold, so living conditions are very harsh. Although Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is close to Central Plains and south, there are very few exchanges with Central Plains south, but more exchanges with Indian civilization. The ancient dynasties of Central Plains could hardly control this place, only Huangshui Valley in Qinghai has become an area that attracts a lot of attention. The Huangshui Valley has enough heat and is suitable for agricultural production. It was a territory that ancient Central Plains Dynasties had to compete for. The Qinghai-Tibet region is not an economic problem, but it cannot be ignored from point of view of a strategic position. With Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Chinese civilization will directly border South Asian civilization, which may affect geographic relationships in South Asia such as Pakistan, India, and Nepal. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is home to China's mother rivers, Yellow River and Yangtze River. With Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China can be complete China.