China is a dual country of agriculture and nomads. Although population of nomads is small, nomadic areas cover most of China's territory. They made an important contribution. However, since ancient times, there have been countless nomadic peoples in China. What is relationship between them and relationship with modern nomadic peoples? This article will briefly introduce them.One, Xiqiang
In terms of geography and history, we can divide nomadic people of China into five main systems: Northeast, Liaohe, Desert, Western Regions, and Western Qiang. Basically, when we figure out these five main systems, we can basically find out origin and evolution of ancient and modern nomadic peoples in China, as well as history of integration.
First of all, let me introduce Xiqiang. The Western Qiang here is not current Qiang people, but Qiang in broadest sense, which in molecular anthropology is called "ancient qiang" and "doqiang", and in linguistics is called Sino-Tibetan language family. The ancient Qiang mainly lived in area from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to Hexi Corridor. About 10,000 years ago, Qiang branch arrived in Weihe Plain and developed an agricultural civilization that was called "Shennong" (nicknamed Qiang) in history. This branch is origin of Huaxia people.
Those who stay put and continue to roam are Qiang people. In Gansu and Qinghai, there are Xianling Qiang, Shaodang Qiang, Zhong Qiang, Lejie Qiang, Danjian Qiang, Han Qiang, Zedong Qiang, Shendi Qiang, Qianren Qiang, Laojie Qiang, and Guayan Qiang. Xanjie Qiang, Shaohe Qiang, Gongtang Qiang, Dangtian Qiang, Dianna Qiang, Huangyi Qiang and others; in Tibet - Fa Qiang, Tang Yak and others; in mountains of Hengduan - Yak Qiang, Baima Qiang and Shenlang Qiang. , Qing Yi Qiang and so on.
During Han and Wei dynasties, large numbers of Qiang people entered Guanzhong and became an important base for northwestern warlords. During Sixteen Kingdoms period, Di Qiang founded powerful former Qin Dynasty that once unified Central Plains. Li Te, leader of another Di tribe, brought refugees from Guanzhong to Bashu and established Chenghan regime. After unification of Northern Wei Dynasty, these Western Qiang who infiltrated hinterland were mostly integrated into Han people. During Song Dynasty, Danxiang Qiang established Xixia in Hexi Corridor, which dominated northwest. The Yaki Faqiang and Tang, who entered Tibet, merged with Negro dwarfs who arrived here earlier, forming Tibetan nationality and founding powerful Tubo dynasty.Second, Northwest Department
In earliest times, people who lived in Northwest of China mainly belonged to Serbian race, race of Europe. They reached Hexi corridor in east, there were Da Yuezhi and Xiao Yuezhi. Having been defeated by Huns, they moved west to Ili River region. During Han Dynasty, Sai people founded over 30 small states in western regions, strongest of which was state of Wusun. These more than 30 countries, apart from Khotan, were created by race of Europe. The story says that “to west of Gaochang, people from different countries have deep eyes and high noses. But this country is not very ugly, and it is very similar to China. It is believed that Khotan was founded by Qiang people.
Later, Xiongnu were enslaved by countries in northwest, and some peoples from western regions joined Xiongnu and became "other Xiongnu tribes". During Western Jin Dynasty, one of other Xiongnu tribes entered Central Plains, and they were all Caucasians. The Jie people established a regime after Zhao in Central Plains. After Ran Ming proclaimed himself emperor, he once massacred Jie people. After founding of Northern Wei Dynasty, Jie people mostly merged with Han people.
Tomb of stone man in Xinjiang
The Sai in western regions are often invaded by desert nomads, so they often prefer to move west or south. For example, Da Yuezhi later continued to move west to Amu Darya region, founded Guishuang dynasty and occupied Indus River basin. Since then, Heda tribe established Heda Khanate and replaced Guishuang. After 6th century, these Serbs were successively conquered by Turks, Uighurs, Khitan and Mongols. Many ethnic groups integrated here, and a new ethnic group gradually formed - Uighurs.Third, desert system
The earliest powerful ethnic group of desert family were Huns, but there is still much debate about where Huns came from, so Huns are omitted here. The so-called desert family is here called "Turkic family" by Westerners, but editor considers this to be incorrect, since Turkic family is only part of it. The original origin of desert ethnic group is Dingling people, and ethnic origin of Dingling people are Guifang and Beidi.
4000 years ago they operated along Great Wall of China or across desert to north and south and created famous Hongshan culture and Ordos culture. According to molecular anthropology research, Y chromosome of people who created Hongshan culture is mainly N. During Shang Dynasty, they were called "Ghost Fang", and in Western Zhou Dynasty they were called "Di" or "Zhai". There are three types: Chi- Dee, Bai-Dee and Chan-Dee. During Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, Kingdom of Zhongshan was once established. Di, who lived on Loess Plateau, was conquered by Jin and Zhao and finally integrated into Han people.
From Shang Dynasty, a large-scale war was waged against Guifang (Beidi), which caused many people to migrate to Mobei, forming Dingling tribe. Ding Ling brought many advanced elements of Shang and Zhou culture to Baikal region and created Karasuk culture. Later, Ding Ling was ruled by Huns. After collapse of Huns, Ding Ling spread throughout desert, and Xianbei called them Te Le, Gao Che or Chi Le. They established Gaoche Khanate during Southern and Northern Dynasties. When Tuoba Tao conquered Ruran in north, many Ti Le surrendered to Northern Wei dynasty, were moved to hinterland by Northern Wei dynasty, and integrated into Han people.
The Turks were united from Asdir family of Tile and Ashina family of Serbs, forming region of Gorny Altai. Later, Tiele tribes joined Turks, who changed attributes of Turks: for example, from Caucasian to yellow, totem changed from cow to wolf, and language became Tiel. Thereafter, Turks united desert and western regions and dominated for a time. The Turks established four great khanates in history, namely Turkic Khanate, Eastern Turkic Khanate, Western Turkic Khanate, Late Turkic Khanate, and Turkic Khanate. Later, Shatuo tribe of Turks was brought to mainland by Tubo people, and they founded small dynasties such as Later Tang, Later Han and Later Jin.
Turkic hairstyles and clothes
Tie Le, who lived in Mobay, always refused to accept Turks. He once established Xueyantuo Khanate and allied with Tang Dynasty to destroy Eastern Turks. After Xue Yantuo was destroyed, Huihe tribe became stronger. Later, Uyghur tribe destroyed later Turks and founded Uyghur dynasty. The Uyghurs were later massacred by Kirghiz (Kirghiz) and Uyghurs resettled en masse. They moved south into hinterland and integrated into Han people. Those who moved west established Gaochan and Karakhan Uyghur dynasties in western regions. They gradually merged with local Serbs and Turks to form Uyghur ethnicity. Another group went to edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and became Yugur people.
Uighurs4. Liaohe system
Ethnic groups in Liaohe system were first called "Eastern Hu" because they lived east of Xiongnu. They created Xiajiadian culture 4000 years ago and their Y chromosome is mostly C. One day they went south to Central Plains, destroyed Xia Dynasty and founded Shang Dynasty. After fall of Shang Dynasty, many did not return and were called Song Kingdom. There are also some merchants who retreated to Liaohe region, forming countries such as Guzhu, Shanrong, and North Korea (Jizi). During Spring and Autumn period, Guzhu and Shanzhong were destroyed and united into State of Yang. During Warring States period, he opened land to Liaodong.
After Xiongnu became stronger, they defeated Donghu, and Donghu split into two parts, northern and southern. Among them, northern part is Xianbei, and southern part is Wuhuan. The Xianbei rose during Eastern Han Dynasty, eliminated Northern Huns, and dominated Mobei. During Wei and Jin dynasties, large numbers of Xianbei poured into hinterland and established kingdoms such as Dai, Yang, Xiqin, Nanliang, and Tuyuhun. Eventually, Northern Wei Dynasty, founded by Tuoba Xianbei, unified Central Plains and pursued a policy of Sinicization that merged all nomadic peoples who entered Central Plains into Han people.
Continuing to remain in Mobei, Tuoba clan became Juran Khanate. They became powerful for a while and became strong enemies of Northern Wei Dynasty, but were eventually defeated by Turks.
The Xianbei who stayed in his hometown in northeast evolved into Shiwei, Khitan and Xi. The Khitan began to ascend from southern and northern dynasties and always fluctuated between Turkic and central dynasties during Sui and Tang dynasties. After fall of Tang Dynasty, Khitan established powerful Liao state, united Northeast and desert, and established North-South Yuan system, which laid foundation for formation of China's dual system. Sinization of Khitans was carried out after founding of country, which very quickly led to sinization of Khitans. After fall of Liao kingdom, some Khitans moved west into western regions, conquered Gaochang Uyghurs and Karakhan dynasty, and founded powerful Western Liao dynasty. The word "China" in countries such as Eastern Europe and Russia comes from Khitan.
The Shiwei's activities were in north of Khitan. After collapse of Uyghur Khanate, Mongol Shiwei migrated to desert and formed Mongolian nationality. The Liao Kingdom established Northwest Recruiting Department to manage them. After fall of Liao kingdom, Mongols began to revolt. In 1206, Mongols united and a khanate was founded, which has continued to expand ever since, conquering East Asian continent, establishing Yuan dynasty and four great khanates. After fall of Yuan Dynasty, Mongolia returned to desert and was divided into three parts: Monan, Mobei and Moxy, and was finally conquered by Qing Dynasty. Among them, Mosi Mongolia also founded Dzungar Khanate and Khanate of Heshuote. After fall of Four Great Khanates, Yarkant, Kazakh and Timur khanates appeared in northwest.
MongolsFive, Northeast Department
The Manchu and Jurchen ethnic groups can also be called northeastern ethnic group. Their earliest names were Sushen, Fuyu, Yilou, and Wuji, and their main activities were in Heilongjiang River basin. Generally speaking, they are divided into two parts: those who live in Sonnen Plain have more contact with civilization of Central Plains, and their society is more developed. Society in lower reaches of Heilongjiang has lagged behind.
During Han Dynasty, they founded kingdom of Fuyu on Songhua River. Later, Buyeo people founded Goguryeo, Baekje and other countries. After establishment of Goguryeo, he continued to expand to northeast and finally annexed Liaodong Peninsula and occupied North Korea. During Tang Dynasty, Goguryeo and Baekje were destroyed jointly by Tang and Silla Dynasty, and their lands were divided between two countries.
Murals of Goguryeo
During Tang Dynasty, Sushen was called Mohe. During Wu Zetian's time, Su Mohe established Bohai Kingdom along Songhua River, and later basically unified Northeast. Both Goguryeo and Balhae adopted Han culture and contributed to development of Northeast China. After Khitans became strong, they destroyed Bohai kingdom and made Liaoyang their eastern capital.
Bohai State Ruins
After decline of Bohai, people again called Mohe Jurchen, among which Heishui Mohe was changed to "Sheng Jurchen", which means backward Jurchens; Sumo Mohe was "mature Jurchen", meaning more advanced Jurchen. Later, Wanyan tribe, one of Jurchens, grew stronger, united various Jurchen tribes, and founded Jin kingdom. The Jin Kingdom successively destroyed Liao Kingdom and Northern Song Dynasty, successfully entered Central Plains, and became strong for a while. After fall of Jin kingdom, all Jurchens who migrated to hinterland were integrated into Han people, and they were collectively called Han people.
During Ming Dynasty, Jurchens were divided into three parts, namely Jianzhou Jurchen, Haixi Jurchen, and Donghai Jurchen. Among them, Jianzhou Jurchen and Haixi Jurchen were developed from mature Jurchens in past, and Donghai Jurchens are located in Heilongjiang Province. downstream society is very backward, and they are also called "wild Jurchens".
At end of Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens became strong, gradually unified various Jurchen ministries, and established Huojin Kingdom. During Huang Taiji period, Qing dynasty again subjugated wild Jurchens. After that, Huang Taiji changed Jurchen to "Manchuria", that is, Manchu. But in fact, not all Jurchens were renamed "Manchus", original Jurchens of East China Sea retained their original tribal names, and now they are Sibe, Hezhen, Oroqen, Evenki, and so on. During Qing Dynasty, Manchus merged into Han people in large numbers, so it is basically impossible to distinguish between Han and Manchu nationalities culturally.
The nomads of China are mainly divided into five main branches, among which desert branch mainly migrated to western regions and merged with branch of western regions to form a branch, that is, Uighurs. Thus, existing nomadic peoples are four main branches plus agricultural peoples, then Chinese nation has a total of five main branches, which are so-called "five ethnic groups" and "five ethnic groups". proposed in story originated from this. All ethnic groups in China are basically formed by merging of these main branches.