China Location: Home Page> Asia > China

How was China's territory developed and inherited? This is how territorial sovereignty of modern China was formed.

It is now generally accepted in academic circles that territory of China was created during Qing Dynasty, and we only inherited territory of Qing Dynasty. Regarding this issue, many people said, “Wasn't Chinese territory smashed by People's Liberation Army? How did she inherit Qing Dynasty?" It's not really figuring out what concept of inheritance is. To clarify this matter, I will simply understand inheritance and development of ancient Chinese territories.

1. The Qin and Han dynasties: establishing boundaries of traditional territory of China.

The so-called inheritance territory means that after new dynasty overthrew old dynasty, it received ownership of territory of old dynasty, and process of overthrowing old dynasty was either by force or by peaceful transition. In any case, this does not affect nature of inheritance. Of course, when regime changes, borders will inevitably fall, so situation is very complicated, so specific issues need to be analyzed in detail.

Let's start with Qin Dynasty. In 221 BC Qin destroyed six kingdoms, and Kingdom of Qin at that time was sum of territory of Seven Heroes of Warring States period. Subsequently, Qin dynasty attacked Xiongnu in north, captured Henan (the Ordos Plateau south of Hetao Plain), and conquered Baiyue in south. If they say that territory of Qin dynasty in 221 BC. inherited from Seven Heroes of Warring States Period, lands of Henan and Baiyue were result of expansion of the Qin Dynasty.

The territory of Qin Dynasty

At end of Qin Dynasty, world was in chaos, Chu and Han were fighting, and finally Han Dynasty was victorious. The territory of early Han Dynasty was limited to 221 years before Qin Dynasty, which was territory inherited from Qin Dynasty by Han Dynasty. At end of Qin Dynasty, Xiongnu occupied Hetao, and Nanyue and Dongyue became independent one after other, but Han Dynasty did not regain these two places until time of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty. It should be noted that use of word "restoration" here confirms achievements of Qin Dynasty and achievements of Han Dynasty. Among them, it can also be said that land of Nanyue was inherited from Qin Dynasty, and Hetao Plain was inherited from Han Dynasty, because Nanyue came independently from officials of Qin Dynasty, and Hetao Plain was occupied. Xiongnu in principle. In ten years there is no possibility of inheritance, only redevelopment.

Western Han territory

During reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, he also annexed North Korea, southwest Yi, captured Hexi Corridor, and conquered western regions. These lands were still under control of Han Dynasty until early decline of Han Dynasty, so area left by Han Dynasty is very significant and surpassed legacy left to future generations by Tang and Ming Dynasties.

During Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, China was usually divided into two parts, Northern and Southern, and its territory was mostly limited to territory discovered by Han Dynasty. Moreover, due to many years of division of country, lands once developed by Han Dynasty were constantly lost. For example, Central Dynasty's control over Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau continued to erode, eventually leading to rise of wealthy clans in Southwest who controlled Southwest and only formally paid tribute to Central Committee. In western regions, Northern Dynasty continued to farm in Loulan area, setting up embassy offices and prefectures, while smaller countries in west continued to be subject to Wei and Jin dynasties as usual. However, due to rise of northern nomads such as Rouran, Gaoche, and Turks, western regions eventually came under control of nomadic empires.

The territory of Northern and Southern Dynasties

You can see greatness of Han Dynasty from here. Under Qin and Han dynasties, traditional territory of China was established. The traditional territory here mostly belongs to realm of "Little China", which we call Mainland, Huaxia or Han, which is different from modern China. The territories of later Sui, Tang, Song and Ming dynasties were mostly limited to territory opened by Han dynasty, and if there were isolated breakthroughs, they were short-lived.

Second, Tang and Song dynasties - rise of multi-ethnic regimes

The Tang and Song dynasties were Middle Ages in China, which corresponded to Middle Ages in Europe. We all know that Middle Ages in Europe is collapse of Roman Empire and arrival of a divided Europe. During this time, various nationalities in Europe created countries one after another and eventually developed into what they are today. In fact, there was a similar trend in China during Tang and Song dynasties as well.

In 589 AD. The Sui dynasty reunified China. China here is traditional China, that is, mainland. The succeeding Tang Dynasty, after about ten years of war, annexed princes of last years of Sui Dynasty and again achieved reunification. The Sui and Tang dynasties were second era of great unification in China. National unity, social stability and economic development laid foundation for expansion of territory.

During Tang Dynasty, she continued to use troops against surrounding ethnic regimes and wiped out Eastern Turks, Xue Yantuo, Western Turks, Goryeo, etc., and once controlled vast lands from Central Asia in west and north . Korea in east, an area of ​​more than 10 million square kilometers. However, why don't we say that territory of modern China was inherited from Tang dynasty? The main reason is that Tang Dynasty itself was unable to inherit it.

On Mongol plateau, Tang dynasty never deployed troops, but only appointed Anbei Huihe protectorate. Soon Turks successfully restored their country, and Tang Dynasty completely lost Mobei region. In western regions, Tang and Tubo dynasties repeatedly fought and changed hands. Finally, after Anshi uprising, Tang dynasty left western regions, and in western regions era of struggle of Tubo and Uighurs for hegemony began. In northeast, Andong protectorate was soon moved inland to Liaodong, and from time of Tang Xuanzong it was moved inland to Liaoxi. After Anshi rebellion, it survived only nominally. In other words, Tang dynasty abandoned Liaodong after Tang Xuanzong. According to records of History of Liao, Liaodong was captured by state of Bohai.

Changes in territory of Tang Dynasty

Therefore, for more than 100 years in middle and end of Tang Dynasty, it was mostly limited to mainland of about 3 million square kilometers. Moreover, after Anshi rebellion, Tang dynasty was a situation of separatist regimes with internal chaos, and finally developed into five dynasties and ten kingdoms. This legacy left by Tang Dynasty is much smaller than land left by Han Dynasty. The unification of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms by Northern Song Dynasty was inheritance of territory of Tang Dynasty, and due to independence of Xixia, capture of Yanyun by Liao Kingdom, and independence of Jiaozhi, Northern Song Dynasty did not fully inherit legacy of Tang Dynasty.

The Northern Song Dynasty inherited territory of Tang Dynasty

During Han Dynasty, development of mainland was outstanding. After Tang Dynasty, all countries of East Asia can be called prosperous. In southwest, Nanzhao kingdom gained a solid foundation, gradually became a nation-state, and became Dali in Song Dynasty, and it began to change dynasty. In Northeast, there was a change in ethnic regime in kingdom of Bohai-Liao-Jin. In northwest, Danxiang clan founded Xixia. In southeast, Jiaozhi became independent and embarked on path of developing a nation-state. In addition, Karahan Dynasty in northwest, Gaochang Uyghurs, and the Western Liao Dynasty were also powerful for a time.

The whole map of Southern Song Dynasty

At this time, situation in East Asia became less optimistic. These regimes are mainly established by different ethnic groups, and they all have their own character and unique culture. Due to deep influence of Han culture, Liao and Jin kingdoms were eventually integrated into Han civilization. However, outlying areas such as Dayue, Dali, and Xixia will inevitably become nation-states over time. a prime example. If these regimes have all developed into nation-states, expanding territory again will be more difficult than ever before.

Thirdly, rise of nomads - creation of territory of Greater China

Ge Jianxiong said in "Unification and Separation: Enlightenment from Chinese History": "The completion of farmland in China was completed by Han people, but unification of farmland and pastureland in China history was made by livestock industry completed by nation

strong>". He made an analysis in terms of physical geography, humanities and systems, and believed that only nomads could combine agricultural and nomadic areas at same time.

Traditional dynasties of Central Plains tended to unite agricultural areas to achieve "world unification". Why did Northern Song dynasty never forget sixteen prefectures of Yanyun, because they believed that Yanyun was only one in world that was not all unified. Of course, after farming dynasty unifies Central Plains, it will also use troops in desert and Western regions, but goal is not to expand territory, but for military security. Therefore, Han and Tang dynasties built only a few military strongholds in western regions and did not actually govern western regions administratively. If dynasty continues to use troops in places like Western Regions and Mobei, it will also be regarded as "militarism" because financial and material resources consumed are also staggering.

Administrative jurisdiction of Tang Dynasty

However, nomadic dynasties may exercise administrative jurisdiction over nomadic and agricultural areas at same time. First of all, Liao kingdom introduced official north-south system, as well as two different systems in nomadic and agricultural areas, ruling according to custom. The subsequent Jin kingdom introduced Men'anmou restraint in Jurchen area and introduced Han system in China, which inspired later Mongols.

After rise of Mongolia, she conquered most of Eurasian continent by force and destroyed Jin, Xixia, Siliao, Dali, Tubo, and Southern Song, who had established themselves in East Asia. After establishment of Yuan Dynasty, East Asia was unified in an unprecedented way, and former Little China was officially transformed into Greater China. Little China is just an agrarian empire, Greater China is a double empire. Therefore, Yuan dynasty basically determined prototype of Greater China.

Administrative jurisdiction of Yuan Dynasty

However, establishment of Ming Dynasty brought China back to "Little China" era. After founding of Ming Dynasty, he attempted to inherit territory of Yuan Dynasty and sent a large number of envoys to northeast, Tubo and Burma to lobby for locals to submit to Ming Dynasty. As a result, Burmese chieftains continued to exist, monks and laity of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau continued to be canonized, and northeastern Jurchens continued to pay tribute. Zhengdong Mansion in Yuan Dynasty. It can be seen that territory of early Ming Dynasty was inherited from Yuan Dynasty and not from Song Dynasty.

Administrative jurisdiction of Ming Dynasty

However, surrounding ethnic groups soon discovered that Ming Dynasty was not as powerful as Yuan Dynasty, so they began to rebel one by one. First, there are Mongols. The Ming Dynasty was never able to conquer Mobei, making Mongolia Ming Dynasty's biggest adversary for 200 years. To deal with Mongolia, Ming Dynasty spent a lot of money building Great Wall of China, but it still couldn't stop Mongols. During Yongle period, although there were five northern expeditions, they failed to hold Hetao plain and Western Liao river basin. After that, Ming dynasty could only retreat within Great Wall. It wasn't until Altan Khan period that two sides reached a peace agreement through Ming opening up a frontier market and giving Mongolia "annual-old rewards."

In Northeast region, Nurgan Dusi was abolished during Renxuan period. Although ministries were still nominally governors, in reality they had already given up. In Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, after Yongle, ministries no longer worried about conquering Ming dynasty, so looting by Ming envoys occurred frequently. In middle of Ming Dynasty, Mongols returned and re-conquered Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Yellow Sect also swept over Mongolian territory, and Mongolia and Tibet began to religiously integrate. In next 100 years, several major tribes of Mongolia crossed Gansu during Ming Dynasty and entered Qinghai to fight for hegemony until 1640, when Heshuote Mongolia was victorious and established Heshuote Khanate. Burmese chieftains stopped paying tribute during Yongle period. After middle of period, Taungoo dynasty was established in Myanmar and continued to attack Ming dynasty. The Ming dynasty lost all Burmese chieftains.

The actual distribution of troops stationed under Ming Dynasty: not counting those assigned by name

Therefore, Ming Dynasty was unable to complete inheritance of such a large piece of land laid out by Yuan Dynasty, and it was completely lost by late Ming Dynasty. 200 years after Yongle, territory of Ming Dynasty was basically within 4 million square kilometers. The territorial heritage left by Ming Dynasty does not leave mainland less than Han Dynasty, and more than Tang Dynasty. This is most objective assessment.

The Qing Dynasty is similar to Yuan Dynasty. The Qing Dynasty not only destroyed Ming Dynasty, but also directly inherited more than 3 million square kilometers of land at end of Ming Dynasty, and also conquered Mongolia, western regions and Qinghai, which basically conquered territories controlled by Mongols. in East Asia. Not only that, Qing Dynasty also introduced strict administrative jurisdiction in various regions and increased control. In modern times, Qing Dynasty has lost 1.5 million square kilometers of land due to internal and external difficulties. At this time, the Qing Dynasty established 11.5 million square kilometers of sovereign land internationally, and sovereignty cannot be easily changed.

Administrative jurisdiction of Qing Dynasty

During period of Republic of China, although China was poor and weak, its sovereignty was inherited from Qing Dynasty, and foreign powers did not dare to take it easily. It was not until end of World War II that Yalta Conference, led by Soviet Union and United States, allowed Mongolia to become independent, causing China to lose Mongolian sovereignty. Since then, New China has inherited remaining 9.6 million square kilometers of sovereign territory. And PLA is targeting warlord forces in this sovereign land, not in other countries. Therefore, our sovereignty is still almost inherited from Qing Dynasty. Therefore, textbooks say that "the Qing dynasty laid foundation of current territory of China."

Related Blogs

How was China's territory developed and inherited? This is how territorial sovereignty of modern China was formed. How shabby is Chiang Kai-shek's mausoleum? Bronze statues were beheaded and flogged, mausoleum was splattered with paint, and descendants wept and wanted to be buried Why was Queen of England buried under a church and not in a graveyard? How does church seal off rotten smell? The British princess of Russia, who had done good deeds all her life, was buried alive in a mine by her husband, and her only last wish was to be buried in China. How dirty was medieval Europe? The lady went to toilet in a skirt, and enemy climbed "shit wall" to attack the city Kurishchenko: After many years of dedication, daughter of a Soviet pilot found out that his father was a hero in China How modern blacks feel about meeting and contributing to "black history" In 1922, Pauline went missing in France, girl was found after 21 days of disappearance, and neighbors looked at her like she was crazy. The diabolical details of visit of British envoy to China revealed truth, Qianlong's cold refusal to British envoy to close country was not blind arrogance. The great history of Africa: it was once most technologically advanced and civilized creature on earth.