The Blackness provides a central lens for transcending collective memory of slavery through which African Americans can understand their collective identity when oppression is what group has long opposed, past. Collective Sustainable The behavior and values of group members can be seen as part of who we were and what we did.
Given collective continuity, we suggest that collective historical resilience can continue to provide confidence, purpose and strength to overcome today's challenges and, indeed, relevant Research shows that for groups with a history of trauma and suffering, persistence of within-group values and practices over time can help mitigate negative impacts on collective sacrifice as history works by defining intra-group norms, values, and Tradition to form basis of group identity.
Different historical narratives can shape ongoing collective action, including narratives about collective sacrifice and collective resilience.
Historical narratives that focus on sustainability of collective history are particularly well suited to mobilize resistance in face of oppression today, as such narratives reinforce strong links between past and present, sources of collective continuity, because people are aware of group's long tradition of fighting and overcoming oppression.
While collective victimization and collective persistence in group histories can theoretically contribute to a deeper understanding of collective continuity, we argue that recognition of history within group persistence is especially a positive historical narrative that should contribute to grief within band, thereby reinforcing band's positive image.
While collective sacrifice can fuel perception of injustice and encourage collective action, remembering a group's history through lens of collective sacrifice alone is a permanent victim status that can also eventually lead to >collective a sense of hopelessness that can be demotivating.
On other hand, collective resilience narratives should produce various useful group outcomes that can be used to promote sustainable mobilization, such as group effectiveness and collective empowerment. (i.e. "we've done this before, so we can do it again").
Although, to our knowledge, no research has so far specifically examined collective continuity as a prelude to collective action, past work supports idea that perception is associated with enduring bonds with a group. stories are important tools in face of current oppression.
For example, highlighting black historical perceptions of collective struggle to overcome racism is associated with greater support for current anti-racism policies, which can help raise awareness of racism in United States. Unchanging traditions, as well as emotional yearning for past social patterns, can push collective action to restore collective continuity.
Furthermore, viewing ingroup as including past, present, and future generations increases willingness to endure suffering and make sacrifices for good of group, and a sense of collective continuity can theoretically be associated with today's collective action relevant because it serves as a psychological resource for members of group, making them feel they are not alone in their collective experience, thus strengthening resolve to defend themselves within group.
So, collective continuity, historical collective sustainability will help explain larger current effects of collective action.
Current research focuses on context of African Americans, a group facing a long history of and ongoing oppression, as well as a long tradition of mobilizing in name of justice and freedom. tradition continues to this day, so purpose of this study was twofold.
First, through qualitative analysis, we examine social representations of African American Black History, especially in relation to Civil Rights Era, to assess historical collective recovery To extent that what power narratives exist in their collective memory, we assume that, in addition to narratives about collectiveof victimization, narratives about collective resilience will become a key part of group's social representation of its history.
Second, through quantitative analysis, we explore whether historical collective persistence (relative to victimhood) explains greater mobilization in response to persistent oppression through collective continuity between group's past, present, and future. sacrifice, collective resilience will be associated with a greater sense of collective continuity, which in turn bodes well for greater support for current Black Lives Matter movement.
In our survey of Blacks, we found that 54.41% of participants mentioned the topic of victimization, which focuses on how Blacks have come together to face pain, suffering, loss, and trauma throughout history . .
The first sub-theme is institutionalized oppression which refers to systematic discrimination and injustice against blacks who are institutionalized and receive state support.
The main theme here is enslavement of Africans in North America in 1619, apartheid era began after slavery was officially abolished (e.g. Jim Crow laws ), as one participant explained, “caused racism and segregation, further prolonging suffering of African Americans.” , customs and practices throughout American history have systematically harmed blacks.
The second sub-theme focuses on black deaths, killings and losses, which talks about how racial discrimination leads to blacks becoming fatal victims, a clear manifestation of which is unarmed killing of blacks. , as one participant described it, "innocent blacks were killed by police and few suffered any consequences".
Participants mentioned several high-profile incidents of police brutality, including 1991 LAPD killing of Rodney King and George Zimmerman 2012 killing of Trayvon Martin .
In addition, participants spoke about assassinations of key black civil rights leaders in 1960s, including Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Dr. Malcolm X. with murder.
The third sub-theme is systematic exclusion of blacks from mainstream media, which refers to how media generally portrays white Americans as a microcosm of American society while excluding positive representations of blacks", I remember when I was a little girl, they didn't allow black faces on album covers," recalls one of members.
Another participant said that "what you see on TV creates stereotypes." Another mentioned how black talent has affected wider American society. Recognised, important black history stories are often overlooked: "So many people don't know anything about black struggles, and unfortunately, these people want to act like it never happened."
Taken together, participants' reflections demonstrate a subtle element of victimization, defined by society's silence on black stereotypes and history.
Regarding black leadership in organizing collective action, many participants described key black-led protests during civil rights movement in 1960s, and prominent black participants leaders including Harriet Tubman, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X.
They mentioned importance of Martin Luther King Jr.'s efforts, including his organized mass protests and memorable speeches such as: Washington, DC, "I have a dream" speech.
Some have also described how actions of Rosa Parks sparked civil rights movement and expressed gratitude for sacrifices of black leaders who paved way for changes seen in that era. In addition, participants mentioned various protests during Civil Rights Movement for South desegregation such as: Montgomery bus boycott and young black students ( known as "Little Rock Nine"). ") to desegregate a high school in Little Rock, Arkansas.
It also talks about Black self-government and social independence, referring to how Blacks have flourished culturally, socially, and economically, mostly in 1860s. Reconstruction era after emancipation of enslaved blacks in 1970s.
Example: Black Wall Street in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Durham, NC, areas of thriving black businesses founded by enslaved blacks before 1900s, financial institutions, and public services< /strong>. strong> were created independently of white-run organizations, primarily to serve black community.
The role of Black Panther Party in promoting black self-determination and instilling a sense of pride in black culture, in addition to rise of black culture, was evident during Harlem Renaissance of 1920s. It was a time when African American culture flourished in music, art, fashion, science, and literature.
By way, another member talked about beginnings of hip-hop in Bronx in New York City in mid-1970s as an important contribution to black community, so Celebrating black culture and achievement strong> is seen as an act of collective resilience against social structures and institutions created by and for predominantly white community.
Also mentioned are blacks as trailblazers in politics, arts, music, fashion and sports, with Barack Obama being most mentioned person today > (Barack Obama), he was first African American to become President of United States.
One participant spoke about how President Obama's inauguration lifted spirits of black community as a symbol of change and a role model for others, and he felt that a burden had been lifted from our community that had weighed on him.
Many participants detailed a collective sense of pride and excitement over Obama's inauguration, and in addition to politics, participants also mentioned beauty industry, music and sports. Representation, for example: Jay-Z is a famous black musician with over $1 billion at box office, Jackie Robinson was first strong> African American who will play in professional Major League Baseball.
Overall, these black badges are seen as breaking down barriers, as their accomplishments are seen as collective victories for black community in broader fight against structural and social racism.
Finally, noticeable legislative changes have been achieved, which are a sign of progress and are celebrated accordingly.
These include 13th Amendment to United States Constitution, which legally abolished slavery, and 14th Amendment, which grants citizens born or naturalized in United States, including former slaves and 1Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Also referenced is Remember Juneteenth (June 19), a black holiday commemorating liberation of enslaved African Americans, who sometimes warned against recognizing victories by not fully addressing black victims.
As a result, legal reforms are sometimes seen as symbolic as fighting is legitimized and partially resolved within legal system, but these laws are often not enforced immediately, face strong opposition from white community, and have long-term consequences. black victimization.