After fall of Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty attempted to inherit its legacy and carried out extensive canonization activities in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, Ming dynasty never stationed troops in Qinghai-Tibet, making this legacy a mere formality. From middle of Ming Dynasty, Mongolia became stronger again and started advancing towards Qinghai-Tibet again and finally established Heshuot Khanate on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The Mongol conquest of Qinghai-Tibet had a profound impact on Chinese history that cannot be ignored.First, Ming Dynasty tried to inherit control of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
In 1239, Mongol army entered Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and quickly subdued scattered Tubo tribes. By 1247, a meeting between Qinghai-Tibetan religious leader and Mongol prince Kuoduang took place at Bayta Temple in Gansu Province. This event in history was called "Lianzhou League". The Liangzhou League marked official conquest of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by Mongolia, and also marked beginning of incorporation of Qinghai-Tibet into Chinese territory.
After collapse of Yuan Dynasty, Mongolia retreated into desert and gradually lost control of entire country. The newly established Ming Dynasty was also ambitious, trying to inherit vast territory of Yuan Dynasty, so it sent envoys to Tubo and Northeast China to appease them.
In 1370, Ming army captured Gansu and cut connection between Mongolia and Qinghai-Tibet, causing various ministries of Qinghai-Tibet to surrender to Ming dynasty. The Ming Dynasty carried out large-scale canonization activities for Qinghai-Tibet, nominally inheriting administration of Qinghai-Tibet from Yuan Dynasty.
In Qinghai region, Xuanwei Tubo District and other places of Yuan Dynasty (Hezhou, where government is located, now Linxia, Gansu) surrendered to Ming Dynasty, and Ming Dynasty established "Xifang Xiwei" in border region of Gansu and Qinghai Strong>(Hezhou, Taozhou, Xining, Mingzhou), and canonized propaganda envoy Tubo He Suonanpu as command envoy of Duogandu.
In Tibet at end of Yuan Dynasty and beginning of Ming Dynasty, Paju regime ruled. The leader of Paju Dynasty is called "Tiksi" and is a major believer in Kagyu sect. In 1372, Ming Dynasty conferred title of "Authorized National Teacher" to second generation of Padrup, Tishi Shakya Gyaltsen. In 1406, Ming Dynasty conferred on fifth emperor title of Dzab Gyaltsang, "King of Explanation".
In Ngari area, Guge Dynasty sent Ming people to "pay tribute" in early 1373. Zhu Yuanzhang canonized Guge as mansion of Marshal of Military and Civil Affairs Erisi. Those who come and return from righteousness, all treat them with courtesy and give them officials."
There are many Mongol tribes living in border regions of Qinghai, western regions and Gansu. These are princes who passed from Chagatai Khanate to Yuan dynasty. After Ming dynasty pacified Gansu, these princes accepted canonization of Ming dynasty. During reign of Yongle, seven guards were canonized west of Jiayuguan, collectively known as Seven Guards of Kansai.
The Seven Guards of Kansai
However, Ming Dynasty never deployed a single soldier in Qinghai-Tibet and Kansai and never established any official post, which left relationship between Qinghai-Tibet, Kansai and Ming Dynasty only in words. on canonization and tribute trade. After decline of national power of Ming Dynasty, Mongol troops returned and reconquered Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.Secondly, Mongolia conquered Qinghai again.
In 1480, famous Dayan Khan came to throne, who again united Mongolian highlands through southern and northern wars. During this process, Yibula, ruler of rightist Yunsebu tribe in Eastern Mongolia, always refused to marry Dayan Khan. In 1510, Dayan Khan attacked Yongsebu tribe, Ibulu was defeated and led remnants to Qinghai, passing through territory of Gansu, controlled by Ming dynasty.
Ibula's entry into Qinghai marked beginning of Mongol conquest of Qinghai during Ming Dynasty, which had a profound effect on later history. After Ibula entered Qinghai, he led troops to defeat "Four Xifan Guards" army of Ming Dynasty. Mongol princes from Kansai Seven Tribes also took refuge in Ibula, which led to collapse of Ming defense system in Gansu. If you don't want to, you will "chase water and grass in spring and summer to graze, and step on river and ice in autumn and winter to plunder Taoming".
Not only that, but often led an army through Gansu region to attack Mongol region. At that time, Ming Gansu garrison did not stop and did not dare to interfere with "freedom" of Ibu "freedom" to travel through Gansu. It was not until 1532 that newly appointed Altan Khan led an army of 50,000 through Gansu and invaded Qinghai.
From then on, Qinghai became an "enclave" of Mongol Khanate. The Mongol army often ignored Ming Dynasty army and traveled back and forth across Gansu territory to achieve effective control over Qinghai. Altan Khan traveled to and from Qinghai many times. In 1560, he left seven tribes in Qinghai, including four sons of Bintu, to guard territory.
In 1569, Altan Khan attacked Qinghai a second time, and his attacker went all way to Tibet, where he plundered. At this time, due to fact that his grandson handed over Khannaji to Ming dynasty, Altan Khan had to hurry back to desert.
In 1573, Altan Khan attacked Qinghai for third time, this time Mongol army not only conquered all of Qinghai, but also included western Sichuan and Kam in Mongolia. In 1577, Altan Khan and Sonam Gyatso (Gelug sect) from Drepung Monastery in Tibet met in Qinghai and Altan Khan announced his conversion to Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism).
Yi Da Han
Through this alliance, Gelug sect of Tibet and Mongolia formed an alliance, and Altan Khan canonized Sonam Gyatso as "Wazir of Dalai Lama who knows everything." This is a living Gelugpai Buddha, known as source of "Dalai Lama". Sonam Gyatso introduced him to Altan Khan as "Zakravaldi Chechen Khan".
Altan Khan converted to Lamaism, which contributed to widespread spread of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, strengthened connection between Tibet and Mongolia, and laid cultural foundation for integration of Mongolia and Tibet.
In 1588, third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso, died in Inner Mongolia, and then Altan Khan's great-grandson was appointed new Dalai Lama. New lama "Yundan Gyatso ".
In 1603, Yunten Gyatso entered Tibet, and with him Mongol armed forces entered Tibet. Mongolia is back again after 133 years of evacuation from Tibet. In process of Mongolia's reconquest of Tibet, Ming dynasty also could not intervene, and did not intend to interfere. After all, biggest threat to Ming dynasty was already emerging Jurchens.Thirdly, creation of Heshuote Khanate.
The introduction of Mongolia and Tibet by Gelug sect was result of a religious struggle in Tibet. From about 1480, Rinbungpa family took control of real power of Phagdrup regime, and Tibet was faced with a situation where "princes were commanded with knowledge of an emperor". The Rinpungpa family supported Galju and Sakya sects and suppressed Gelug sects.
In 1565, Sinshaba family rebelled, replacing Rinbungpa family. In 1611, Karma Phuntsok Namgyal, son of Sinshapa Tensong Wangpo, announced his inauguration of Tisi in Khuzang region, marking founding of Tsangpa Khan dynasty in Tibet. The Sinshaba family continued to support Kagyu faction and suppress Gelug faction, so there was a scene in which Gelug faction sought support from Mongols.
In 1618, Gelug faction allied with Mongol army to launch an attack on Zangba Khan dynasty, but this failed and Gelug faction's lands were confiscated. Three years later, Mongol Tumed army from Qinghai re-entered Tibet and defeated army of Zangba Khan dynasty in Lhasa, restoring status of Gelug sect.
Just as Gelug sect was gaining ground in Tibet with support of Tumed Department, something happened in Qinghai. In 1632, in order to support Ling Dan Khan, Khatu Khan from Khalkha of Mongolia led an army to Qinghai and conquered Tumed tribes. The Karma Kagyu sect in Tibet contacted Chotu Khan to deal with Gelug sect.
In 1635, Chotu Khan asked his son Arslan to lead a 10,000-strong army into Tibet, occupying almost entire territory of Tibet. However, Arslan soon betrayed Chotu Khan, met with Fifth Dalai Lama, and even converted to Gelug sect. Ketu Khan was furious and ordered secret execution of Arslan.
When Gelug sect was in crisis, Gushi Khan led Heshuo Special Detachment in Qinghai. The Department of Heshuote is part of Oirat Mongolia and has long been leader of Oirat Mongolia. In 1606, Tulubaihu, leader of Hesho Special Department, was awarded title of "Great National Teacher" for resolving conflict between Khalkhas and Oirats, therefore he was called "National Teacher-Khan". transliteration "Gushi Khan"
When Ketu Khan was about to destroy Yellow Sect, Gelug Sect sent people to western regions to ask Gushri Khan for help. In 1636, Gushi Khan allowed his nephew Okye Tuhan to succeed him as leader, and he led army of Oirat Alliance into Qinghai. In 1637, Gushi Khan defeated Ketu Khan's army of 30,000 with 10,000 elite soldiers, but Ketu Khan was killed. This battle was called "Battle of Bloody Mountain". Since then, Qinghai has become Heshuote territory of Mongolia.
In 1638, Gushri Khan entered Lhasa and formed an alliance with fifth Dalai Lama. Gushi Khan was canonized as "Gushi Tenzin Kutse" in Lhasa, which means "National Teacher and King of Teachings" and is also called "Gushi Nuomen Khan" in Mongolian.
In 1640, Gushi Khan sent troops to occupy lands of baili chief in Kham. In 1642, Gushri Khan sent troops to Tibet and destroyed Zangba Khan dynasty. From then on, Gushri Khan basically unified Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and powerful Heshuote Khanate was established.
Situation during creation of Heshuote Khanate
Although Gushi Khan unified Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and established Heshuot Khanate, he was still officially subordinate to Qing Dynasty. In 1635, Huang Taiji defeated Lindan Khan, received Khan's seal of Mongol Khanate, and was elected Great Khan of Mongolia. Subsequently, Khalkha Mongolia and Oirat Mongolia declared their submission to Qing dynasty. Gushi Khan also paid tribute in 1646 by establishing a relationship with Qing Dynasty in words, which made it easier for Qing Dynasty to manage Qinghai-Tibet affairs.