The earliest people in Europe were Damani, Neanderthals, etc., but these people were not ancestors of modern Europeans, and they all died out later. The earliest late Homo sapiens in Europe were Mediterraneans, who were shorter, with longer heads and darker skin like ancient Egyptians. Greek historians called them "long-headed men" or "pirascos". Around 2000 B.C. e. The Pilas created Cretan Civilization called "Minoan Kingdom". This is beginning of European civilization.
Then Indo-Europeans began to migrate en masse to Europe. The Indo-Europeans formed region of Caspian Sea, some of whom migrated westward and became ancestors of most modern Europeans. They are mainly divided into Slavs, Celts (Gauls), Germans and others. About 2500 BC. one branch of Indo-Europeans, Ionians and Achaeans, crossed Danube and invaded Greek peninsula. In 1900 B.C. e. under influence of Minoan civilization, they founded Mycenaean civilization using Linear B. Around 1450 B.C. Mycenae conquered Minoan civilization. In 1300 BC, Mycenaean dynasty split. Around 1190 BC The city-state of Mycenae launched aggressive activities abroad, not only starting "Trojan War", but also invading Egypt (called "peoples of sea" by Egyptians).
About 1100 BC another group of Indo-Europeans invaded, Dorians. They captured Peloponnese peninsula and destroyed Mythia. Ni dynasty. Since then, Greece has entered "dark ages". After 300 years of darkness, Dorians founded city-states such as Sparta, Corinth, love past The Ionians founded Athens, Miletus and other city-states. Greece entered era of city-states. The various city-states continued their colonial activities and established some 400 colonies around Mediterranean. Later Greece defeated Persian invasion and became prosperous, especially democracy in Athens was brilliant for a while. However, Peloponnesian War led to decline of Greek city-states.
The Greek city-states were in decline, and Macedonian kingdom in north began to strengthen. The Kingdom of Macedonia was founded around 700 BC. and belonged to Greek nation, but for a long time was very backward economically and culturally, and it was called "barbarian". During period of Archelaus, capital was moved to coastal city of Pella, Hellenistic reforms were carried out, and it was fortified. Philip II continued to push for reforms and created a powerful Macedonian phalanx. In 338 BC Philip II united Greek city-states. In 334 BC. e. Alexander conquered East, soon destroyed Persian Empire and founded a great empire spanning Asia, Europe and Africa. Later, Greek civilization reached its peak and eastern and western cultures mingled in what became known as "Hellenistic era".
In 323 B.C. Alexander died, and civil strife began in empire. After 20 years of struggle, Seleucid dynasty (305-64 BC), Ptolemaic dynasty (305 -30 years ago) and Macedonian kingdom (305-146 years ago) were three pillars of position. Among them, Seleucid dynasty had largest area and was most powerful empire in world at that time, with an area of 3.5 million square kilometers. The economy and culture of Ptolemaic dynasty were prosperous, and its city of Alexandria, with a population of 700,000, was cultural center of Hellenistic world. All Hellenistic dynasties inherited Persian provincial system, which had a great influence on Rome. In this era, such famous scientists as Archimedes, Euclid and Aristarchus appeared.Second, Roman era
Around same time that Greek city-states were reborn, Etruscan civilization, which was forerunner of Roman civilization, also arose on Italian peninsula. In 753 BC city of Rome was founded, which entered era of reign, and later Etruria conquered Rome. In 509 BC Rome expelled king of Etruria and entered era of Republic. In 270 BC Rome unified Italy. Subsequently, Rome launched three Punic Wars against Carthage (the Phoenicians) (264-146 BC) and finally unified western Mediterranean. After that, Rome launched four more Macedonian Wars (214-146 BC) to conquer Greece. After that, Rome launched a war in Syria and captured Asia Minor, which belonged to Seleucid dynasty. In 64 B.C. Rome destroyed Seleucid dynasty. In 58, Caesar conquered Gaul; 30 years ago, Octavian destroyed Ptolemaic dynasty. So far, king of Mediterranean has completely become "inland lake" of Rome.
The territory of Roman Republic
The continuous expansion of Rome made city-state system unable to adapt to new needs, so republic began to transform into an empire. Under dictatorship of Caesar, Roman Empire was actually created. During Octavian period it was officially called "Augustus" and Roman Empire was officially established. The early Roman Empire survived Augustan era (27-14 BC), Julius-Claude dynasty (14-68 AD), Flavian dynasty (69-96 AD) and Antonine dynasty< /u > (96-192). During reign of Antonine Trajan, territory of Roman Empire reached its peak, covering an area of more than 5 million square kilometers, reaching Great Wall of Hadrian in north and Rhine River in south. in north and Persian Gulf in west.
Map of Roman peak
From late Antonine dynasty, Roman Empire began to decline. After fall of Antonine dynasty, there was a long period of civil strife in Rome. In 284, Diocletian ascended throne, bringing an end to nearly 100 years of chaos. Diocletian carried out large-scale reforms in Rome, which led to an economic revival. However, he implemented "Four Emperors Joint Administration", which eventually provoked a civil war and all reform results were lost. In 305, Constantine united world and ascended throne. To avoid situation of "four emperors co-ruling", he separated his children and placed them all over country. He also continued to strengthen centralization. In 330, Constantine moved capital to Byzantium and turned it into most prosperous city in world. However, transfer of capital by Constantine also fraught with hidden dangers for division of Rome. After death of Constantine, Rome was divided. In 395, Rome was officially divided into two parts: East and West.
After division of Rome, Western Rome soon fell into decay. During this period, Germanic peoples in northern Europe continuously invaded Rome, eroded territory of Rome and founded one after another Germanic countries in territory of Western Rome, such as Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Franks, Suebi, Burkengs, rains. In 476, last puppet emperor of Western Rome was deposed, and Western Roman Empire officially fell.
After decline of Western Rome, Eastern Rome entered its heyday. Under leadership of Justinian (527-565), Eastern Rome continued to use troops against Germanic countries, almost restoring territory of Roman Empire. At that time, Eastern Roman Empire was most powerful empire in world. Justinian also organized compilation of Encyclopedia of Civil Law, first codified and complete legal document in European history, which had a profound impact on European countries and world after 12th century. After death of Justinian, territory of Eastern Roman Empire began to shrink. After emergence of Arab Empire, territory of Eastern Rome was mainly located in Greece and Turkey. However, due to its superior geographical advantages, Eastern Rome was able to maintain economic prosperity.
Map of Eastern RomeIII. Changes in Middle Ages
Western European Germans destroyed Western Rome, but were subdued by Roman culture. All Germanic kingdoms adopted Christianity. Among Germanic countries, Frankish kingdom became strong over time. The first Frankish dynasty was Merovingian dynasty (481–751) with its capital in Paris. The Frankish dynasty introduced a system of enfeoffment, so country was very scattered and situation was turbulent. In 751 Pepin Short came to power in a coup and founded Carolingian dynasty. The Frankish kingdom continued to annex other Germanic countries. By time of Charles's reign, it had become strongest country in Europe, and in 800 Charles was crowned Roman Emperor. At this time, there are two other places in Western Europe that require attention. In England, a group of Germanic Anglo-Saxons founded seven small countries, which is beginning of history of British nation. In Spain, place was occupied by Arabs, and Visigoths began a revival movement that lasted 800 years.
From 9th to 11th centuries, this was period of formation of large European countries. We basically divide it into three parts.
(1), Germanic aspect. In 843 Frankish Carolingian dynasty split into three parts, and in 870 Eastern and Western Carolingian dynasties divided most of land in Central Francia, forming territory of France, Italy and Germany. The Eastern Carolingians were replaced by Holy Roman Empire in 911 and Western Carolingians by Capetian dynasty in 987.
(2) On north side, Vikings (Danes) established a huge Danish empire and invaded everywhere. In England in 1016 Danes ruled here, in France they installed Duke of Normandy. In 1066 Duke of Normandy invaded England and founded British Norman dynasty. After that, Duke of Anjou inherited Norman dynasty, and Britain became a country across English Channel. This concealed a hidden danger for Hundred Years War between Great Britain and France.
(3) In Eastern Europe, Slavs began to create a country, Eastern Slavs Rurik dynasty (Kievan Rus 862-1240), it is said that Rurik dynasty was also founded by Danes, Western Slavs founded Polish Special Pias Dynasty (960-1370), in Yugoslavia arose Bulgarian kingdom. In addition, in Eastern Europe there is also Kingdom of Hungary and so on.
From 12th to 13th centuries, under leadership of Pope, countries of Western Europe undertook nine Crusades in an attempt to reclaim Holy Land in Western Asia. . The crusades ultimately failed, but this led to a sharp drop in prestige of Roman Church. After that, countries of Western Europe began transition to a single nation-state. The Crusades also destroyed prosperity of Eastern Roman Empire and created conditions for rise of Turkish Empire. From then on, Italians replaced Byzantine trade monopoly, and city-states such as Venice, Milan, and Genoa emerged. In Italy, seeds of European capitalism and European universities began to grow. In Spain, Gothic revival movement largely triumphed and established kingdoms of Portugal, Castile and Aragon. Founded in Northern Europe, Norway and Sweden. At same time, Kievan Rus collapsed and was eventually conquered by Mongolia and formed "Golden Horde".4. Changes on map of Europe in modern times
From 14th to 15th centuries, Europe began to enter modern civilization. In Italy, Renaissance appeared, as well as rise of European technology and humanism. In Bohemia, Hussite Reformation began, and dominance of Catholicism began to break . Britain and France are waging Hundred Years War. As a result of war, Great Britain lost its lands on European continent. Great Britain began to explore sea and introduced "Continental Balance of Power Policy". France during war expanded lands of royal family, which marked beginning of formation of French centralized autocracy. Spain (in 1492 Castile and Aragon formed Spain) and Portugal embarked on a great navigational campaign, and early colonial expansion began. In Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire finally passed to Ottoman Empire in 1453. However, Russia emerged, successor of Eastern Rome. At this time, Golden Horde was divided, and Moscow principality continued to annex principalities of Rus' and, finally, created Russian Empire. In Northern Europe, Denmark, Norway and Sweden formed Kalmar Alliance.
The 16th and 17th centuries were era of Western European expansion. Spain occupied almost all of America, as well as Philippines, and monopolized 80% of world's gold, becoming first world hegemon. Portugal monopolized trade in East, occupying Brazil, Africa and coast of Indian Ocean. Spain's heyday was era of Habsburg dynasty, which once ruled half of Western Europe and once annexed Portugal. However, independence of Netherlands and Great British-Spanish War foreshadowed decline of Spain. In Eastern Europe, Russia continued to annex large khanates that had broken away from Golden Horde, and began to embark on path of expansion to east. To cope with rise of Russia, Lithuania and Poland were unified in 1569.
From end of 17th century to 18th century, this was peak of absolute monarchy in Europe. In addition to establishment of a constitutional monarchy, absolute monarchies were established in Great Britain, France (Louis XIV), Austria, Prussia and Russia (Peter Great). Britain and France fought for dominance in Europe during this era. Eventually, Britain defeated France in Seven Years' War and became an empire on which sun never sets. Russia is constantly studying Western European culture, trying to close distance with Europe. Poland was repeatedly divided between Prussia, Russia and Austria. In this era, Enlightenment movement broke out in Europe, and a storm against autocracy was to break out in Europe.
In 1776, Englishman Watt invented a usable steam engine, and Industrial Revolution began in Britain. By 1840, Britain had largely completed Industrial Revolution. Under influence of Industrial Revolution, continental Europe experienced large-scale revolutions represented by France. There was French Revolution, Napoleonic Empire, etc., and it wasn't until 1870 that French Revolution ended. Driven by wave of industry, Germany and Italy are finally moving towards unification, laying foundation for modern European model. Then came tumultuous second industrial revolution, and a unified Germany rose rapidly. With help of European countries, southern European region, which was under rule of Ottoman Empire, also became independent, and Greece was restored.
After First World War, three empires - Germany, Austria and Russia - collapsed. The territories of Germany and Austria were very quickly reduced and were suppressed. Russia has become Soviet Union. After that, Second World War broke out, and land of Germany again decreased, and it was divided into two countries. The two Germanys were not unified until 1990s. The collapse of Soviet Union in 1991 forced Russia to carve out a large number of countries it had annexed and changed political landscape in Europe. At same time, collapse of Yugoslavia again led to division of Balkans.