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Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

Until now, vast majority of historical studies of relations between Spain and Sweden have emphasized difference between two countries, difference in spirit, rather than actual differences. However, he also emphasizes European position he defines, by which we mean position of two countries on so-called "European fringes".

This structure is generally accepted by Swedes as part of their historical and conceptual understanding of European facts. To this day, nearly 20 years after Sweden joined European Union, word Europe appears frequently in Sweden. In this context, "mainland" refers to countries located between Southern Scandinavia and British Isles and Mediterranean.

In Spain, by contrast, for obvious historical reasons, there is a refusal to be seen as predominant "periphery" of Europe, even visible at academic level. And he still has this point of view, which is a tendency to emphasize individuality of Spain on European continent, that is, Spanish history, so he is more inclined to use Emmanuel Wallerstein to suggest term >"semi-periphery » refers to Spain in a European context.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

Whatever subjective point of view, it is certain that from a geographical and historical point of view, we believe that use of term "periphery of Europe" to refer to Sweden and Spain over past two centuries is Rivne. In so-called modern age, we use word "periphery" to describe it.

In sense noted by Roberto Russell and Juan Gabriel Tocatlian, peripheral conditions correspond to geographical ones. There are no centers of power in international power system or political situation. possibility of broad autonomy at external level and definition of military status can be viewed from strategic point of view of most dominant and recursive actors.

Despite their geographical and cultural differences, in second decade of 20th century they shared a common reality: they remained neutral in Great War. This would bring two countries in a similar position in international arena closer, resulting in an increase in their common interests: especially in relation to European powers, both political and economic.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

So, surprisingly, comparative studies of this period and subsequent years are not rich, interwar period, from 1918 to 1939, exchanges between two countries also do not stand out.

Roberto analyzes modernization process from a comparative point of view in these two geographic areas, what Sweden and Spain have in common: it is largest area in their respective environments (except Russia), same applies to Baltic and Mediterranean worlds.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

Both lands, subsoil, rich in minerals, especially iron, were major exporters of metals in 19th century when two countries entered 19th century, former empire. fell into economic decline, and disproportion between its natural resources and its political and military power was evident on a European scale.

In addition to these similarities, it is also worth mentioning that in 1917 several revolutionary events took place in Pave, mainly due to effects of war on neutral countries.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

On other hand, until end of 20th century it seemed that there was no need to emphasize obvious contrasts and differences between them. Among other things, they emphasize homogeneity of Sweden compared to regional diversity of Spain, as well as greatest democratic traditions and ideals of Scandinavian nation regarding supremacy of consensus, an idea which, on contrary, is not much different from Spanish one.

Due to rise of comparative historical research, despite obvious difficulties, this approach is useful, often providing new and valid points of view that cannot be obtained from purely case studies based solely on local sources. were understood and some studies of Spanish-Swedish relations emerged.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

These were joint projects proposed by Swedish government through its then ambassador to Spain, whose main figure was Thomas Bertmann, which resulted in so-called "Swedish-Spanish Historical Conference" to organize.

At time of Franco, there is as much material in Swedish archives as there is little Swedish historical research, all of which has depth that any research project on topic could provide. have a bibliography you can rely on.

In regards to diplomatic relations, it is interesting to note that although they have not historically been particularly prolific or important, there is even official information about Sweden on website of Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as eponymous Spanish information in Swed, none of them did not mention relations between two countries until 1979.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

Thus, these data are fundamental methodology of study that we intend to discuss here, which aims at an in-depth analysis of diplomatic relations between Sweden and Spain in 1930s and their relationship to situation when Second The Spanish Republic and Civil War in Spain are same.

We believe that study of Swedish and Spanish diplomatic documents of that time can make an invaluable contribution to a better understanding of historical events, and we hope to fill an important historical gap in foreign and domestic policies of both countries. Since history has paid little attention to this issue, and given that Sweden is a densely populated country commensurate with its population, increase in material and physical assistance was greatest test for Spanish Republic.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

Those pivotal years in modern history: Analytical presentation of Swedish-Spanish diplomatic relations. There is no doubt that complex of questions about Spain and Sweden, about what Spanish-Swedish diplomacy represented for political development of Spanish Republic from 1931 to 1936, and three-year civil war, is a sad end. .

What aspects of Spanish political life are of particular interest to Swedish diplomats? What do Swedish observers say about republic's foreign policy? To what extent did Sweden's attitude towards Spain at that time correspond to what has been established by existing historians?

In these questions, a problem has repeatedly arisen that needs to be addressed: whether image of Sweden in Spain at that time corresponds to data provided by Spanish historiography.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

Regarding Sweden, during review period, how did Spanish diplomats in Sweden view transformation of Scandinavian country into one of first welfare states on earth, and what issues related to Sweden worried Spanish diplomacy most, what caused such interest and how Spanish diplomacy evaluates Sweden's foreign policy, especially within framework of League of Nations.

By analogy with what has been said about Spain, it is worth asking whether impressions of Spanish diplomats about Sweden confirm performanceist point of view of Swedish historiography. The third set of specific questions posed in survey concerned bilateral relations between Sweden and Spanish Republic.

How did these bilateral relations develop, what kind of cooperation developed between Sweden and Spain within framework of League of Nations, how did relations between Sweden and Spanish Republic develop How to support republic, what kind of conflict occurred between Sweden and Spanish Republic, these are questions .

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

We can focus on Sweden's relationship with Francoist Spain, what was Sweden's relationship with Francoist Spain between July 18, 1936 until end of 10th century, what kind of help did Francoist Spain receive from Sweden during Civil War, Is there any conflict between Sweden and Francoist Spain?

Here we will focus mainly on a specific analysis of activities of Spanish legation and diplomatic corps in Sweden in 1930s and their Swedish namesakes in Spain. Let us discuss links between representatives at non-state institutional level.

The political and trade union namesake of two Paves is reflected in Swedish and Spanish diplomatic documents, for this we will analyze sources available in archives of foreign ministries of both countries, such as Swedish Foreign Ministry, Spanish Diplomatic Section and Cooperation Section.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

In addition, in order to study Swedish intervention in Spanish Civil War, we will use a large number of primary sources contained in other documents, civil and military, Swedish and Spanish. We will discuss this in more detail in a separate chapter as we look at current state of issue in Swedish and Spanish historiography.

Before analyzing and commenting on existing sources of Spanish-Swedish relations in 1930s, as well as addressing current state of this issue in Swedish and Spanish historiography, it is necessary to conduct a theoretical and methodological review of this study Some explanations. This study is of a certain interdisciplinary nature and cannot but discuss History of International Relations, Public International Law, People's Law between two European countries in 20th century strengths> and International relations.

This type of study lost its relevance during second half of 20th century, when many currents argued that study of history of political and diplomatic relations is an outdated topic in modern debates about purpose and methods of history. Indeed, even today our subjects regard as an obsolete subject historical records of previous centuries, a period when rise of a nation's political history itself seems to call for the historian's attention to science.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

Of course, there is a traditional focus on power relations between countries, in which diplomacy is right tool. In hands of relevant authorities to promote their views and national interests, as well as in an international context, studies on this issue from a methodological point of view usually follow traditional approaches, often quantity over quality, in studies of documents produced by embassies and foreign institutions.

Everything but an analysis of intentions and extent to which each country's foreign policy goals were achieved must have resulted in history of international relations being mixed between social sciences, sociology , social sciences . International Law and History, with some predominance of these and their own approaches.

This can be seen in primacy of point of view of force, or in use of rational actors as only appropriate approach that applies to Sweden and perhaps more so to Spain.

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

Growth in economic and social history, and class, gender, generation, race or > New methodological perspectives in study of microhistory, as well as theoretical approach of discourse theory, followed by key authors of what became known as postmodernism, such as Foucault or Rico, contributed to a marked decline in recent decades, found reflection in history of international relations between Sweden and Spain.

In Sweden, in particular, study of political history is disappearing, as it is almost completely absent from research programs of university history departments, there are exceptions that confirm rule, but historical studies are mainly focused on history after First World War. World War, Most in social history and conceptual studies, to detriment of political history.

This is also reflected in non-existent organization of Faculty of History itself at Pava University. Except in special cases, professors of ancient history, whether medieval, modern or modern, heads of departments generally have general title of professor of history, about "special history...." due to specifics of history of family, history sports, labor history, environmental history, social history, local history and teaching about history, and even in some cases it is called "early history".

Spain and Sweden: what is "edge of Europe"

In general, although substantive aspects of Spanish history remain, medieval feature (medieval, modern) in Sweden is biased, but attention to questions of historical theory and method is historical in nature. scientist is a consequence of diversification of his research work.

Thus, while Spanish historians are specialists in a certain period, Swedes are more like specialists in application of historical theory and method, whatever they mean.

In practice, curricula and historical methodology have formed core of Swedish university history curricula for decades, and it is only recently that we have begun to see a shift in sensitivity in this regard, They are restoring forgotten areas such as medieval history.


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