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The rumor that tomb of Mongolian nobleman Kiyan belongs to O2 must be stopped

Currently, there are rumors on Internet that Genghis Khan is a descendant of Liu Bang, and basis for this is that "Mongolian nobles asking for beauty are all O2." it's time, it's time to specifically refute.

The data of Internet rumors is based on article "The dynamic 6000-year genetic history of Eastern Steppe of Eurasia".

In fact, this article exists, but its content does not match what is written in article on Internet.

The rumor that tomb of Mongolian nobleman Kiyan belongs to O2 must be stopped

Firstly, this DNA does not belong to Kiyan tribe at all

The Kiyan tribe existed from about 1100 to 1206 AD. Around 1100 AD Kabulkan, seventh generation grandson of Boduanchar, restored Kiyans as a tribe. The title existed until 1206 AD, when Genghis Khan Temujin (Temujin), 10th grandson of Boduanchaer, unified Mongolia and title Yeke Mongol ulus was no longer used and Yeke Mongol ulus.

The DNA data of "Dynamic 6,000-Year Genetic History of Eastern Steppe of Eurasia" refers to 1200-1400 AD, that is, to later period of Mongol Empire. During this period, people in pastures have long existed as a single tribe of Qiang, but different tribes live together, and even many Han and Semu.

On Internet, data of Mongol Empire, which was hundreds of years later, were applied to early Mongolian Kiyans, and many other tribes, Han and Semu, were classified as Kiyan tribes.

There is a detailed description of time in appendix to article, and it is clearly written as ca. 1200–1400 n. e. (1200-1400 AD).

The rumor that tomb of Mongolian nobleman Kiyan belongs to O2 must be stopped

In addition, S4_Radiocarbon Dating appendix to article also provides measurement data for C14 isotope. Only some faces have carbon 14 data. The screenshot is as follows. It is clearly seen that these persons belong to period of Mongol Empire. in 1200-1400, not Ancient beggars.

The rumor that tomb of Mongolian nobleman Kiyan belongs to O2 must be stopped

Secondly, none of five O2 members are nobles, they are all civilians

Many people think that "all beggar nobles are O2". Regardless of fact that these data are not from begging tribe, among 37 individuals with patrilineal data in article, types are C2(12), R(8), N(5), O2(5), D(4), J(1 ), untyped CT(2).

Among 37 individuals, 5 type O, which is not largest, but in some legends became all of them.

In terms of quantity, during period of ancient Mongol Empire, ancient inhabitants of steppe, C2, were largest body, much larger than O2. This is still case in Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang and Kalmykia in Europe.

Furthermore, none of these O2s are nobles. In appendix to "Dynamic 6,000 Years Genetic History of Eastern Steppe of Eurasia", which is found in "Death Note" (funerary note), there is a column that says whether these faces are noble tombs.

What are noble tombs of Mongol Empire?

The person with highest status has number "TAX002", which is recorded in "Funeral Note" (funeral note) as "Square Tomb (Noble)" (Square Tomb (Noble)), and on paternal line this person is D1a2a.

In addition, there are 8 tombs marked "Elite Mongol Cemetery". These 8 elite tombs have 4 male paternal data, namely R1b1a2a1a1-M405, R1a1a1b2a2a-Z2123, R1a1a1b -Z645, R1b1a2-PF6475. , all R types.

Except for these 9 tombs (5 paternal data), all others are commoners, five O2s are all commoners, and none of them are nobles.

Among them is a person who according to online articles is considered a descendant of Liu Bang under number DEK001, and C14 data shows that this person lived from 1327 to 1435 AD. He may be a victim of war between Ming Empire and Northern Yuan Empire, and not so-called beggar aristocrats in Internet rumors.

Besides, this ancient herdsman, who is suspected to be offspring of Liu Bang, is actually not a descendant of Liu Bang at all, but a common offshoot of modern Han population. The DEK001 individual who was misrepresented as a descendant of Liu Bang is O2a2b1a1a1b1a1-F317, but actual Y type of Liu Bang's family is O2a2b1a1a1a1a1a1-F155. The two of them have a common ancestor O2a2b1a1a1a-A9459, and common ancestor time is 7600 years. back.

The rumor that tomb of Mongolian nobleman Kiyan belongs to O2 must be stopped

For more information on Y chromosome during Mongol Empire, see my previous introduction.

"Ancient DNA data of Mongolian nationality in Yuan and Ming dynasties"

"Y-chromosomes of different classes in Ancient Mongol Khanate (13-15 centuries)"

"The latest results of ancient DNA typing show that Genghis Khan's Y chromosome is C2-Y4541 type"

The rumor that tomb of Mongolian nobleman Kiyan belongs to O2 must be stopped

Complete Y data of ancient Mongolia 13-15 centuries (1200-1400)

TAH002 D1a2a (D-P47)

TAV007 R1b1a2a1a1 (R-M405)

TAV011 R1a1a1b2a2a (R-Z2123)

TAV001 R1a1a1b (R-Z645)

TAV005 R1b1a2(R-PF6475,R-M269)

DUU002 R1a1a1 (R-page 7; R-M417)

ARG001 R1a1a1b2a2b (R-Z2122)

ARG003 C2b1a1b1 (C-F3830)

BAA001 C2b (C-F2661; C-L1373)

BAY001 C2b1a1b (C-F3937; C-F1756)

BRG004 CT (CT-M5613; CT-M168)

BRG005 N1c2b2 (N-L665)

DAS001 C2b1c (C-M546; C-F1918)

GUN003 N1 (N-L735)

KHN001 C2b1a1b1 (C-F3830)

KHO001 J (J-CTS10446; J-M304)

KHV001 CT (CT-M5606; CT-M168)

KHV002 N1c2b2 (N-L665)

KNN001 O2a1c1a5 (O-M5420)

KRN001 C2b1b1 (C-M86)

MRI001D (D-F1137; D-M174)

SHA001 C2b1c (C-F3795; C-F1918)

SHG001 C2b1a1b1 (C-F3830)

SHG002 N1c1a1 (N-L708)

SHG003 C2b1c (C-F4002; C-F1918)

TSA001 C2b1a1b1 (C-F3830)

TSA002 C2b1 (C-F1788; C-F1699)

TSA003 C2b1c (C-F3939; C-F1918)

TSA004 D1a1a (D-N1)

TSA005 N1c1 (N-L395; N-M46)

UGO002 O2a2b1a1 (O-page 23)

UGU002 R (R-P224; R-M207)

ULN011 O2a2b1a1a (O-F42; O-F8)

ZAM001 R1a1a (R-L449; R-M512)

ZAM002 D1a1a (D-N1)

ZAY001 O2a2b1a1a (O-F8)

DEK001 O2a2b1a1a1b1a1 (O-F474; O-F317)

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