1. Tuoba Party Item
The Founding Emperor of Xixia, Li Yuanhao, was born into "Tuoba" tribe, one of eight major tribes of Danxiang people. His real last name is "Tuoba".
History of Xixia Tuoba family, according to a study of article "Change of Yuan Hao's surname" published in "Journal of Qinghai University of Nationalities (Social Science Edition)" in 2013, history of this tribe can be traced back to at least early Tang Dynasty . “Li Yixing, a native of Xiazhou, originally went by name Tuoba. At beginning of Zhengguan period of Tang Dynasty, there was Tuoba Qiqi who returned to Tang Dynasty. Emperor Taizong has bestowed surname Li, and have Jingbian and other states deal with it.
Early in founding of Xixia, Li Yuanhao strongly advocated an independent regime based on Tibetan customs and ordered Xixia royal family to change their surname from "Tuoba" to "Wei Ming".
The original meaning of surname "Wei Ming" must mean that Tuoba, an ancestor of Sixia Tuoba, was once emperor of "State of Wei" (Northern Wei Dynasty founded by Tuoba Xianbei).
The character Wei is pronounced Wei. In ancient Chinese characters, this is a variant of Wei and Wei. It's actually a different way of writing same Chinese character. "Name" means "not" in Xixia language, so "Wei Ming" The general meaning must be to create another state of Wei (rather than original Northern Wei dynasty).
It is very interesting that Li Yuanhao's nickname is "Wei Bui", and when his father named him, he also had in mind to return him to Northern Wei Dynasty.
Xixia writing style:
2. Gene analysis
According to this historical record, Tuoba clan of Xixia royal family escaped massacres of Mongol Empire in early 13th century, and descendants who survive to this day should change their surnames to two Han surnames Li and Wei.
Among them, surname Li comes from Tuoba tribe, who were given surname "Li" at beginning of Tang Dynasty.
In terms of time, origin of this family must coincide with surrender of Tuoba Chichi (Li Chichi) to Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty (626-659 AD) about 1400 years ago.
In general, Xixia royal family type Y must meet following three characteristics: ①The origin time must be 1400 years ago; ② Surnames should be mainly Li and Wei; ③The location should be mainly in northwest.
Can we find such a family using big data? Answer: yes.
Type D-Y14813, dating from 1430 years ago, coincides with Tuoba Kichi.
In terms of last names, among D-Y14813's last names, first last name is "Li", accounting for 13.68%, and second highest last name is "Wei", accounting for 7.55%.
In terms of geographical distribution, type D-Y14813 is mainly distributed in present-day Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and northern Shaanxi.
Summarizing, type D-Y14813, regardless of outbreak time, surname characteristics and geographic distribution, is fully consistent with Xixia Tuoba family and is undoubtedly Xixia Tuoba family.
However, in terms of paternal lineage, Xixia Tuoba (D-Y14813) and Xianbei Tuoba (C2n-F1756) do not belong to same type. How are they related? What happened between them? Or Danxiang Tuoba simply falsely used name Xianbei Tuoba, which requires more historical interpretation.
3. Western Xia Tuoba Royal Family Descendants
Genghis Khan had an adopted son named Chakhan (Mongolian chagan, meaning white).
In later generations, main part of Outer Mongolia is Khalkha tribe (constituting 80% of population of Outer Mongolia). One thousand households belong to Outer Mongolia. Among seven thousand households of Khalkha tribe in Outer Mongolia, there is one Tangwute Qianhu (Xixia in Mongolian means Tangwute), which is equivalent to counting seven points of Khalkha ancestral source in Outer Mongolia. One is from Western Xia.
It is very interesting that Xixia royal family does indeed have ancient DNA data.
The 2020 article "A Dynamic 6000-Year Genetic History of Eastern Steppe of Eurasia" provides information on 37 DNA from period of ancient Mongol Empire (1200-1400 AD) (i.e. data distorted by netizens as Tribe Qiyan, Of course, time and geography do not agree with Qi Yan), among which highest status is male specimen number "TAH002", buried in western Outer Mongolia. This is written in "Funeral Note" attached to article. that this tomb is "Square tomb (noble)" (square tomb (noble)), this person's paternal lineage is D1a2a-P47, this type is definitely headwaters of type D-P47-Y14813 of Xixia royal family, and Xixia tomb is also square (Mongolian people are round), so TAH002, a noble during Mongol Empire, is probably not a Mongol at all, let alone Qiyan tribe that netizens expect, but a Xixia noble who was captured and treated predominantly by Mongol army (is there any perhaps an adopted son of Genghis Khan, from Chahan clan of Xixia people?).
Today, many descendants of Tuoba Danxian live in northern part of Shaanxi, among them village of Li Jiqian in Mizhi County, Yulin, Northern Shaanxi (Li Jiqian is grandfather of Li Yuanhao), a great man named Li Zicheng came out in 17th century. The Y-type branch of population also most likely belonged to Xixia royal family.