Africa, a mysterious place.
The African experience is arid and deserted, but Africa also has large rainforests, a paradise for animals and plants. The impression of Africa is that it is backward. Even with development of science and technology, there are still most primitive tribes, but in Africa there are places full of high-rise buildings, and there are also rich nobles. The impression is that Africa is not rich in food and food is scarce, but many agricultural crops originated in Africa, and Africa gave birth to first people. So what is Africa?
From today we will tell you about Africa in a series of texts and videos.
The unique geographical location provided conditions for origin of oldest hominids
According to recent data, scientists have taken samples of depths of ice layer and depth of seabed, in ancient times earth was much colder than now. At this time, not only north and south poles were covered with ice and snow, but ice line extended even to north and south temperate zones.
This cold lasts a long time every time, every time it lasts thousands of years. This is Ice Age.
The environment of Earth provided conditions for reproduction of primitive people in Africa.
On one hand, overall latitude of African continent is lower and warmer than in other parts of world. This is a prerequisite for survival of large animals on land.
On other hand, cold climate has turned a lot of water into solid ice. The climate becomes drier and less rainy. This directly leads to loss of tropical forests. Much of African continent has been turned into pasture.
In order to adapt to changes in environment, animals also began to evolve. This change took place approximately 10 to 5 million years ago.From Australopithecus to a skilled man
Australopithecines can already use tools, but such tools are readily available branches and stones, and they do not have ability to work with them.
Australopithecine's brain is about one-third size of a modern human brain.
In 1964, Mary and Louise Leakey discovered a 2.5 million-year-old skull fossil in Tanzania. According to research findings, primitive man at that time already knew how to use tools and could make tools. This makes primitive man and Australopithecus fundamentally different.
At this time, volume of brain of primitive people reached half volume of brain of modern people.
This is earliest human being currently considered to be a capable person.Homo erectus from Africa
The cold and drought of Ice Age greatly affected survival of mankind.
Homo erectus replaced Homo habilis 1.8–1.6 million years ago.
Of course, it is not yet clear whether Homo erectus descended from Homo habilis or from another hominid.
The brain size of Homo erectus has reached two-thirds of brain size of modern humans.
Homo erectus was able to make sharp tools such as stone axes.
In addition, Homo erectus began to use fire. This is a huge improvement. Eat healthy cooked food, hunt and keep warm.
Homo erectus was first hominid to travel from Africa to Asia and Europe. This happened about 1 million to 500,000 years ago.
Regarding emergence of Homo erectus from Africa to Asia and Europe, Western scientists have drawn conclusions based on similarity of stone tools found in Asia and Europe.
I personally think that this should not be enough. Just a stone tool, can only Homo erectus in Africa make it?
Though, according to today's DNA analysis, all of humanity did indeed originate in Africa. However, it is not enough to have a stone tool as evidence.The world of Homo sapiens
After hundreds of thousands of years, approximately 400,000-200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens appeared on African continent.
The brain volume of Homo sapiens is no different from brain of a modern person.
Until 90,000 years ago, Homo sapiens spread across much of Africa.
The stone tools made by Homo sapiens became more and more perfect. There are thin blades, as well as spears and arrows.
In addition to stone tools, there are various bone tools. For example: awl, needle, fishhook, etc.
Homo sapiens was skillfully and organized: hunting, gathering, fishing and other activities.
This activity of Homo sapiens contributes to emergence of social relationships. The collected life and maintenance of social relations contributed to birth of language.Birth of language
Languages originated on African continent between 16,000 and 11,500 years ago.
There are four main language families in Africa.
Between Nile Falls in Nubia, Red Sea and Ethiopian Plateau, Afro-Asiatic languages predominate.
The area between Nuba Mountains and middle course of Nile belongs to Nilo-Saharan language family.
In southwest of Nilo-Saharan language family is Niger-Congo language family.
Tanzania in East Africa gave rise to the Khoisan language family.
How is a language born? How did everyone achieve same voice for the flower? Someone will say that this is a convention. So, how did everyone come to an agreed upon agreement?
This is really troublesome, it's another chicken and egg problem.Earliest hominids in my country
The earliest hominid discovered in my country is Yuanmou Man in Yunnan Province, who lived 1.7 million years ago.
People of Yuanmou
African Homo erectus lived from 1.8 to 1.6 million years ago, and time has come.
And it's still in most southwestern part of Yunnan. This is consistent with how sorghum was brought to my country from Africa.
The famous Peking man was not earliest. Peking Man lived between 700,000 and 200,000 years ago and belonged to Homo erectus.Resume
This is most significant contribution of African civilization to world. Unfortunately, this contribution could not be continued.
In this world, luck really does seem to exist. The earliest luck was in Africa, then from African continent, then in Asia, then in Europe, and then in America.
Next: Crop and animal husbandry in primitive society