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World economic crisis: impact on Spain

During global economic crisis economy is to blame for crisis of confidence associated with regime change, but global crisis has had little effect on Spain, which is little dependent on foreign countries. In fact, Halifax currency remains fairly stable compared to currencies based on gold standard.

In December 1933 Law on Relations between State and Central Banks was promulgated, Swedish diplomats believed that this was a step towards nationalization of banks, between economics and politics. relationship between them was evident in change of government in 1933. Partly, though not completely, in economic terms, they highlight strong dissatisfaction of conservative public opinion with government measures.

The municipal elections of 23 April 1933 show strength of Spanish right. We have already mentioned that Danielson believes that fall of Azania cabinet was due to increased tensions between head of government and President of Republic over Congregation Act.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

Swedish diplomats say Alcalá Zamora refused to sign new provisions of Constitutional Guarantees Act without consulting other political leaders.

Alcalá Zamora is known to be internally dissatisfied with political and social activism of Azana government, and in current situation he prefers a moderate government: a bourgeois court.

Nothing is impossible as long as socialists share power, negotiations are already underway for a new republican socialist government composed of social democrats Bestro with party of three radical ministers.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

April 30, 1933 The Swedish minister plenipotentiary personally held talks with Azania, during which other diplomats were present, including German ambassador, Azania Nia, complaining about obstructionist work of opposition.

In addition, Danielson said: A member of government who was present at dinner told my colleague that there would be a crisis in government because three socialist ministers could leave it.

According to same colleagues, Professor Sanchez-Romain could come to power, who set as a condition possibility to freely determine his list of ministers, they say, if socialist masses are ready for a general strike, so as not allow socialists to leave government.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

June 12, 1933, after formation of fourth government of Republic and third government of Azania, Danielson noted that he was almost identical to previous one in power. His resignation was only due to division and interference of various Republican parties.

In September, Swedish government was told that a ministerial crisis had arisen because right-wing parties had won votes of members of Constitutional Guarantees Tribunal that "given influence government to choose local institutions" has a say, and Tamil believes that "branding institutions of republic" can pave way for right-wing dictatorships. And announced possibility of new elections.

He was not wrong, despite two short-lived governments between them: Le Roux and Martinez Barrio.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

Hoping that outcome of Second Republic would be similar to that of First, he emphasized need for a change of attitude, criticizing in particular Azania's "serious efforts to hastily enforce anti-religious legislation" with pen of a Swedish diplomat, he leans more towards political conservatism than head of his missions.

According to Iterberg, real reason for change of government is that government is bad at managing economic affairs. High-ranking mixed juries were always led by socialists, this had a negative impact on working conditions, class struggle escalated, management of industry was disastrous, etc.

There is no doubt that these criticisms deserve attention, and activists' drive to undo centuries of social injustice has dangerous consequences. According to Swedish diplomat, an international economic crisis has also erupted, given Spain's relative economic isolation from rest of world.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

This explanation alone is not enough, and while politicians generally agree that change of government was a turning point for Spanish economy, Iterberg went on to say that business community sees presence of socialists in government as a result of numerous strikes by radical left groups as a soft factor. Ytterberg concludes: "Three Marxist blocs joined forces to make policy of new government more difficult."

While there were several major clues sent by Swedish legation to Albertina Palace in Sofia during first republic's two-year period, headquarters of Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs had only two major issues.

The general election in November 1933 meant that second government of Le Roux (the seventh Republican Party) was accepted. The Swedish diplomat said: “I hope that a time of calm and order will come in Spain. “It is very difficult for a government that is really on right.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

Mission wrote that "victim" of right to renounce power is also observed in Catholic parties accepting a republic, that actions of people do not mean that form of government is in question, and that majority of Catholics or right people will support Republic . Rather, power is more or less embodiment of monarchy.

But issue of Monarchy/Republic was not main issue at time, as there were other sensitive issues such as resolving ecclesiastical situation, which was supposed to be negotiated to reach an agreement, since Vatican and Spanish Catholic gangsters surrendered to Republic.

The Center Party was ready to make an agreement with Church, and in interests of Republic under Asania he managed to make Catholics his sworn enemies. However, if government can maintain this restraint, it may not necessarily be a consequence, but they are willing to fightand use social unrest in country to regain their ground.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

In Spain, right and left are fighting bitterly, not only for ideological reasons, phrase "sitting at table of power" refers to a large extent to those involved in Spanish politics. If a centrist government fails to pursue a policy of reconciliation, then there is no alternative to a right-wing government, and consequences are unimaginable.

The elections in

November 1933 were widely discussed in Swedish diplomatic circles. Interestingly, this is defined as a "far-right" party bloc, elections were well organized, and they interpreted victory of right as a reaction of voters to aggressive policies of Azanian government on social issues. time in Spanish history when a woman exercised right to vote.

They voted in favor because their religious sensibilities were hurt by Azanian government's secular policies," Danielson wrote in his year-end memoir. The new government will carry out land reform in such a way as to respect private property. resolved without violating his beliefs.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

Of particular interest in this regard is secret telegram dated November 22, which contains a rather disturbing analysis of situation, in which Danielson explains that situation could escalate because, as he learned from "well-informed people ”, Lago Caballero spoke of revolutionary actions to turn away right-wing government.

His informant, Consul General of Sweden in Madrid, de la Peña, who was in close contact with radical leader Le Roux, told Danielson that Martines Barrio arranged for Lago to meet between Cavaleiro and right wing leader Gil Robles to discuss matter.

Gil Robbs, given danger of civil war posed by socialist views, said he was willing to allow some congressmen, in exchange for socialists to do same for some Republicans, to allow a centrist government with radicals as a basis. On other hand, the right was never going to rule alone.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

While right-wing coalition parties now appear to be reclaiming space for political action, there is no mention of behind-the-scenes games in mainstream media, and non-majority re-elections will be held on December 3 before then, as oddly enough, seats should be distributed among parties according to compromise agreed upon at night session.

As you can see here, de la Peña has no hesitation in blaming communists for putting country in danger of civil war as early as 1933. Danielsen, on other hand, mentioned electoral fraud, which he felt was necessary to keep his readers from being suspicious of Swedish Foreign Office.

As far as I can tell, there are clear signs that Spanish Republic is underestimating its opponents, and that democracy is even less important in eyes of Swedish diplomats.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

Danielson's subordinate Iterberg, who reported on anarcho-syndicalist revolution on December 8, insisted that left and right political extremes were a danger to Republic. According to Ytterberg, Socialist Party remained on sidelines, and majority rejected actions of these "extremists".

The army is dangerous because it is not known with whom it will stand up, judging by what "good sources" may already know, there are extremists among officers spread, and among chiefs and officers there seemed to be a larger number of followers as a "fascist movement."

During new government of Le Roux, eighth Republican government, which began on March 3, 1934, Swedish delegation assessed developments in political life of Spain in first quarter of year and concluded that, as >center-right government, he pointed out that left wing of Radical Party was also unhappy with influence of right wing in the government.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

The right wing does not want to join government for tactical reasons, opposition's filibuster policy has prevented government from doing anything noticeable, government is boycotting work, and in Socialist Party most radical party Having gained a foothold, moderate Bestello was forced to leave his post, and Lago Cavalero now supports approach and use of his methods by radical left.

In course of development of Spanish left Spain, "National Socialist Movement", led by "Sons of former dictator Primo de Ri Vera", also arose. strong>, which he considered unimportant at time, was limited to some of most conservative classes, but it could appeal to other social classes because its program contained some very liberal social views.

As for socio-economic situation, Swedish diplomats believe that it is closely related to political instability, exacerbated by lack of peace, which is also a consequence of political instability. In May 1934, delegation reported that Unemployment in Spain had risen from 389,000 to 667,000 in two years.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

The agriculture and forestry sectors accounted for 60%, construction trade sector for 3%, transport sector for 2% and rest < strong>10%, due in part to Spain's transition from a country with 20,000 net immigration per year to net immigration between 1932 and 1933, and a deepening economic depression , capital left, production and purchasing power declined, Spain lacked initiative.

Danielson said he was aware of an authorized source of social peace, impact of unreasonable wage policies and land reform, according to diplomat, although unemployment was high compared to population Small but out of -for "the lack of interest of authorities in paying unemployment benefits or taking measures to promote employment", and also due to fact that most of extremists who disturb peace are unemployed.

Nevertheless, Danielson believed in Spanish workers' ability to reduce their standard of living to bare minimum necessary to ensure that affair did not have serious consequences. causes concern due to an uprising against government in Madrid.

World economic crisis: impact on Spain

And, if not for decisiveness of army, which could have serious consequences, its victory was also facilitated by passivity of main leaders of socialism, Yetterberg believes that a return to normal life will take time, especially since both sides of actions taken.

As far as revolutionaries and security forces are concerned, Swedish diplomats blamed brutality of revolution on so-called Spanish "customs", which were consistent with prevailing mindset of best students at time, which was conceived within a racist framework. some traits, without prejudice, among them cruelty would be a characteristic that is especially present in Latin world, especially in Spain.


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"Origin of classification"

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