Sweden and Spain in League of Nations Diplomatic crisis in liberal government of Carl Gustaf Ekman, 1926 In 1928 Sweden opposed admission of Spain to Council of League of Nations.
Sweden supported Germany's accession and refused Poland's seat on Security Council so that a Locarno-style compromise could be reached. A well-known Swedish study of Sweden's foreign policy claims that it had four periods of paradigm shift: in 1434, 1630, 1812 and 1991.
From 1812, when country was last directly affected by war, until January 1991, Sweden's foreign policy focused on two main coordinates: neutrality and international mediation in conflicts.
I wonder if Sweden's veto of Spain's veto for a permanent seat on Council of League of Nations in 1926 was consistent with this policy. The answer from Sweden is positive when it came to mediation in favor of unfair treatment of Treaty of Versailles.
In recent decades, political debate in Sweden has been revived from topic of neutrality, and a book written by a Swedish journalist in early 90s has broken a political silence that many believe is actually due to secret collaboration of Nazi regime, image of Sweden always acting in a coercive manner, and constant threat of an invasion by Third Reich have also been questioned by recent German historiography.
These studies have since been called Balance of Power and Permanence of Coalition Borders, Swedish Foreign Policy in 20th Century". As for Niels André's support for Swedish working class or Soviet politics, answer can be found in the Swedish communist movement and its relationship with Moscow.
In 1970 British alternative was question of how Swedish foreign policy would proceed after World War I, which also included Tobyn Norman's The Myth of Neutrality: Diplomacy in Sweden. Policy analysis”, Higher than will of people: on Swedish foreign policy Tommy Hansen, War, peace at any cost” by Ingmar Ottosson.
Between 1935 and 1945 League of Nations and collective security issues, as well as Sweden's neutrality in World War I, were also discussed at that time, although Hammarskjold advocated neutrality from very beginning and complied with all norms of international law .
But Spain will do same. Neutrality in practice helped Germany a lot. For example, Sweden turned to British government for help, and Italy and Romania didn't want to fight Germany. Go to war. Similarly, he refused to participate in trade blockade of Germany, although this led to a reduction in Sweden's imports of oil from allies, food shortages, etc.
1917 After fall of Hammarskjöld's regime, Allies supported victory of Liberals and Social Democrats, and in final stages of campaign it is common knowledge that German embassy in Buenos, Diplomatic Representative Serice, took office and Swedish Foreign Office announced movement of Allied ships to Berlin.
The new government of Eden Blanting immediately negotiated with Allies and concluded a trade agreement that ended shortage of essential goods in Sweden, but in 1918 Sweden's neutral foreign policy was again tested.
The government remained neutral, which did not please Finnish victors, and as relations with Sweden further weakened, some Swedish warships were sent to Aran Islands. But most Swedish-speaking Finns, including 300,000 Swedish speakers to this day, are also official language of country.
The only official language in Åland Islands was result of a referendum held in 1919, in which 96% of islanders wanted to reunite with Sweden, although League of Nations decided to continue to belong to Finland.
The end of World War II brought dramatic changes to international scene for Sweden, its two powerful neighbors, Germany and Russia, and newly created League of Nations for pacifist. Optimism gives wings, and this makes mood especially strong among liberals and social democrats.
The first question posed to Sweden was "League of Nations". From Swedish point of view, organization has obvious flaws, neutral countries have nothing to say on its basis, conquered are even fewer, USSR and USA are still on sidelines. Therefore, in Sweden, some doubted whether joining League of Nations was a departure from policy of neutrality.
Finally, government decided at entrance to give a vote of confidence to this world peace effort, only vote against was from Conservative Party, which protested treatment of Germany, article on Sweden and League of Nations sanctions. Here you can also find a lot of material on monographs about institutes.
Sweden's policy in League of Nations is to defend interests of smaller nations against larger ones, by trying to make social phenomena more widespread, while opening up nations that lost Great War and promoting agreements.
This line is not only in line with humanitarian and internationalist ideals of time, but may also be policy that best promotes Sweden's national interests and can decide security around Sweden and world , less defense spending and more social reforms.
Moreover, such actions within League of Nations are not limited to official positions, which suggests that League of Nations exists and operates in such a way that governments support great powers with which it has centuries of cultural affinity, that it is at other levels. Also good succeed, for example, in studies and with students.
Spain is not mentioned in general references to Swedish foreign policy, suggesting that Spain plays a minor role in Swiss foreign policy. On other hand, we must not forget role of Sweden in Spanish Civil War, as we shall see later.
This is crucial to understanding Sweden's interwar political views, such as financial turmoil and Loan Agreement issues that will arise with Spain. Frequently Asked Question.
Sweden has maintained a policy of neutrality during World War II and Cold War, and has played an important role within United Nations since 1950, so much so that it considers itself first Tier 2 Diplomatic Authority. Based on a policy consistently followed from 1812 and especially widespread during period 1919-1939.
In Sweden and Spain, in order to study relations between Sweden and Spain in 1930s, they were studied by some researchers from third countries. We will not comment on public sources for studying internal politics of each country and Spanish Civil War, which was also relationship between Sweden and Spain in previous years.
Swedish research on Swedish-Spanish relations of 1930 generation has been sparse, with one notable exception focusing on certain aspects of relationship, whether commercial or cultural or humanitarian during Civil War.
First of all, it should be emphasized that there are no case studies of political and diplomatic relations between Sweden and Spain in period 1931-1939 in Sweden. On contrary, there is a lot of material about civil war in Sweden and Spain, especially about humanitarian work of Swedish volunteers in international combat and Swedish Committee for Relief to Spain.
This topic has been most intensively explored by Swedish writers, no doubt Markus Catla Carmagno in his work dominated by "Sweden and Spanish Civil War", in which he analyzes role of Sweden and subject of trade relations from several points of view.
As a result, relations between entrepreneurs and business organizations in both countries are dominated, in which he conducts a contrastive and comparative analysis of origins of both languages and Paves. His theoretical and methodological approach is closer to authentic material than Spanish dominance.
It presents Swedish readers with a very telling picture of relations with Spain during Civil War: solidarity, political dilemmas, trade issues, diplomacy, which also divides Spain into two sovereignties behind scenes. The area actually caused same embodiment of decision of Swedish government on Spain.
Using sources from (Utrikesdepanementet) archives of Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, archives of Parliamentary Committee for Foreign Affairs (Parliamentary Committee for Foreign Affairs), General Association of Swedish Exporters (SAE) and some major Swedish media.
Because memoirs of two prominent Swedish figures of time, Ireland and Herbert Tinsten, made less use of Spanish sources, Ministry's Spanish diplomatic archives contain only seven documents. , and this diversity of sources is perhaps biggest shortcoming of study.
Furthermore, Kantera's Charlemagne essay on Sweden in Italian diplomatic accounts of 1930s is characterized in its structure and content, revealing previously unknown data and opening door for future research. But article has been criticized in Swedish academic circles, especially regarding use of Italian diplomatic sources.
Considered by some to be one-sided and critical, incomparable with other Swedish sources, and sometimes lacking an empirical basis, work of fundamental importance for our study is work of five main participants in Swedish labor movement, which includes three political parties and two major unions.
Regarding Spanish War, main conclusion was that Social Democrats and their trade unions chose a policy of complete neutrality, although his sympathies were on side of Republic, but this did not change outcome, and about Swedish role of worker movement in Civil War is very rich in Swedish historiography.
Political aspects can be found in Unity in struggle, Swedish labor activity and Spanish Civil War, latter being particularly interesting because he analyzed in depth various positions and antagonisms that arose as a result of war in Spain, in Swedish labor movement, especially among trade unionists.
A recent and very interesting book on subject is a work called They Shall Not Pass, The Spanish Civil War and Its Adjustment", which aptly sums up all aspects of Swedish intervention in civil war.
It is worth noting that Kennastrom, Gustafsson, Carlson (C) Darling , Henriksen, >Matterson and Gronadal, who together with anarchists Bemner and social democrats Papers>G. Blunting stand together and these authors share a similar ideological position in another sector of Swedish labor movement.
Another class of Swedish research has analyzed war in Spain on basis of available press material, of which Nielsen and Darling were lead investigators, and there was also some interesting work at Swedish-Norwegian hospital in Alcoy.
However, most extensive study is that of members of International Brigade, which is most comprehensive and analyzes role of Swedish mission in Madrid and London non-intervention committee in charge of border control. Gyllenhaal and Westerberg's book is most complete and detailed account of Swedish volunteerism in war with Spain.
The inclusion of photographs is well documented in existing archival and bibliographic materials, and one of main sources used by these authors are two volumes prepared by Swedish Army Headquarters in 1938 and 1942 on analysis of Spanish Civil War, and minister of Spanish Republic in Stockholm was described as a "superficial person".
It may seem surprising that there is a relative paucity of concrete contemporary writings on Sweden's relations with other great powers, but on other hand, this should be understood in terms of question of Sweden's central role in lateral relations Searching for explanations , especially within League of Nations and later United Nations.
In historiography of second half of 20th century, there was no interest in political history, and there were many records that could not be verified. From existing records, we can also learn a lot about the history between Sweden and Spain. , although these materials are one-sided, we can still draw from them a lot of useful information for understanding Swedish history.
"Changing Trends and Experiences: Foreign Policy Lectures 1937-1939"
"Peace at war must be at any cost"
The Social Democratic Movement: Ideas and Politics in Interwar Europe