There is a very large ethnic group in northwest China called Qiang. The Qiang nationality here refers to Qiang nationality in a broad sense, including Tibetan nationality. According to ethnic origin, Han nationality is also a branch of Qiang people. Historically, Qiang nationality had such offshoots as Tubo, Dongnyuguo, Danxiang, Danchang, Dabu, Sirong, Beidi, Yuexi, Bailan and Pu. Therefore, Qiang nationality occupies an important place in history of China. By studying ethnology, molecular anthropology and ancient documents, it is surprising that ancient Qiang people were also founders of Xia and Zhou dynasties in ancient China.First, what is relationship between Qiang nationalities and Huaxia nationalities?
In fact, Huaxia nationality was a national concept formed during Zhou Dynasty. Prior to Zhou Dynasty, there were no Huaxia people. Prior to Zhou Dynasty, there were two main powers in Central Plains. One of them is people of Yi in east. They once created brilliant Dawenkou and Longshan cultures and founded Shang Dynasty. The legendary Emperor Jun, Taihao and Shaohao are ancestors of this nation. Another ethnic group is located in upper reaches of Yellow River, that is, Qiang ethnic group.
Distribution of Dongyi and Xiqian ethnic groups
Why is qiang nationality called "qiang"? The reason is that this ethnic group has been herding sheep for a long time in Gansu and Qinghai, so they are called "Qiang", i.e. people who herd sheep. Qiang's interpretation in "Shuowen Jiezi" is "Xirong shepherds also follow people and sheep, and sheep also sound." In Shanghai "Shan Hai Jing · Xi Shan Jing" there is an entry about sheep totem of Qiang people: "All gods have body of a sheep and face of a man." In ancient Hehuang River Basin, abundance of water and grass is very conducive to development of animal husbandry, which is nature and economy that Qiang people rely on for survival.
So what is connection between Qiang people and Huaxia people? The Huaxia people have two humanist ancestors, Emperor Yang and Emperor Huang, both of Qiang ethnicity. According to historical records, Emperor Yan had surname Jiang. "The book of late Han biography of Xiqiang": "The origin of Xiqiang comes from Sanmiao, and surname Jiang is different."
The surname Ji comes from Di people, and Di nationality is a branch of Qiang people, common in northern part of Loess Plateau. In Shan Hai Jing Da Huang Xi Jing, it is written: "There is a country of Beidi, grandson of Yellow Emperor is called Shijun, and Shi Jun was born in Beidi." Emperor. "Shan Hai Jing Da Huang Bei Jing" Entries: "The Yellow Emperor gave birth to Miaolong, Miaolong gave birth to Rongwu, Rongwu gave birth to Mingming, and Mingming gave birth to a white dog. A white dog has a male and a female, and it is a Rong dog." During Warring States period, Bai Di also founded Zhongshan Kingdom.In Annals of Spring and Autumn, Du Yu says: "Xian Yu Zhongshan, Bai Di, surname Ji."
Yellow Emperor Mausoleum
It can be seen that Huaxia nationality is separated from Qiang nationality. About 8,000 years ago, Qiang people who entered Weihe river basin developed agriculture and thus began to enter era of agricultural civilization. Among them, surname Ji and surname Jiang are two that entered agricultural era earlier. They created Dadiwan culture, Majiayao culture, and Banpo culture in Weihe River basin.
Map of ancient human migration in East Asia
From point of view of molecular human beings, it can also be proved that modern Han and Qiang are closely related. According to DNA testing and analysis, both Han and Qiang belonged to ancient Qiang series. About 5,000 years ago, Han's ancestors were separated from Qiang. In linguistics this can also be proven. Now Chinese, Tibetan, etc. have a lot in common (note that language is similar, not characters), so they are classified in academic circles as Sino-Tibetan languages.Secondly, Qiang people founded Xia dynasty.
Who founded Xia Dynasty? Of course it was Dayu. According to historical records, Dayu was indeed a notorious Qiang. "Xinyu Shushi" says: "Yes Yu came from Xiqiang." "Historical Chronicles of Six Kingdoms": "Yu Xing in Xiqiang". "Spring and Autumn Annals of Wuyue Yuewang Wuyu Gaiden": "Gong married Yuxin family, ... gave birth to Gaomi (Yu) and lived in Xiqiang." The "Theory of National Salt and Iron Diseases" also says, "Yu came out of Xiqiang"... so many historical materials show that Dayu was a member of Xiqiang tribe.
In Chinese history, word "Xia" is not mentioned during Shang Dynasty, and it is first mentioned by Zhou people. The word Xia is not found in inscriptions on bones of oracle. In fact, Xia is self-proclaimed name of Yanhuang branch of Qiang people, while people of Shang Dynasty were collectively referred to as Qiang. At present, 39 hieroglyphs "qiang" have been found in inscriptions on bones of oracle. The Qiang people and Shang people often fought. Chen Mengjia gave an example in "A Brief Survey of Inscriptions of Yin Ruins of Fangguo by Geography": "When Qiang was defeated, there were 3,000 women and 10,000 men, a total of 13,000 men." The dynasty eliminated over 13,000 people at one time. The people went on a crusade against Qiang people, who at that time were almost army of whole country, which shows that Qiang people are strong.
Wuhao led an army of 13,000 to attack Bujia on Qiang side
During war, Shang Dynasty captured a large number of Qiang people who became slaves. In oracle bone inscriptions, there are many oracle bone inscriptions that use Qiang people as sacrifices. About 2,000 human sacrifice inscriptions have been found in oracle bone inscriptions of Shang Dynasty so far, with a total of over 14,000 "human sacrifices" recorded, of which almost 8,000 were "Qiang". It can be seen that Qiang people are biggest enemy of Shang Dynasty. During Shang Dynasty, Qiang women were called "Qiang", men were called "Qiang", and leaders of Qiang people who wore horns on their heads were called "Mei".
Pit of death
According to historical records, Xia Dynasty was destroyed by merchants during Shang Dynasty, but why were there so many wars with Qiang people? The Xia Dynasty was founded by Qiang people, but Qiang people are settled in a vast area, and entire Loess Plateau and Guanzhong are sphere of influence of Qiang people. After Shang Dynasty destroyed Xia, it would inevitably lead to hatred and conflict with Qiang people, so they would inevitably be in a state of confrontation for a long time.Thirdly, Zhou people come from Qiang nationality.
The Zhou people claimed that they were successors of Xia Dynasty and had some relationship with Xia Dynasty. We can look at source from surnames of Zhou people. The Zhou people are a nation formed by intermarriage of two surnames, Ji and Jiang. Undoubtedly, common sense is that paternal line of Zhou people is surname Ji. However, matriarchal origins of Zhou people are mainly associated with surname Jiang. The Historical Records of Zhou Ben Ji states that “Zhou Houji was called Qi. His mother was a Tai family daughter named Jiang Yuan. Jiang Yuan was concubine of Emperor Ku Yuan." That is, ancestors of Zhou family were born in Jiang Yuan, so maternal line comes from Jiang. The later surname Jiang has always played an important role in Zhou dynasty. For example, famous Jiang Ziya is also an aristocrat from Zhou family.
The Zhou people were originally a branch of Rongdi, but as they entered era of agriculture, they split off from Rongdi. After fall of Xia dynasty, people of Zhou "lost their officials and fled between Rong and Di". According to a textual study by author of Ancient History of China, Zhou people first lived in Shanxi, and after fall of Xia dynasty gradually moved to Guanzhong. It can be assumed that after fall of Xia Dynasty, Zhou people moved west to headwaters of Wei River to avoid war of Shang Dynasty. After migrating to Weihe River, Zhou people began to develop agriculture, which is why people of Shang Dynasty called them "farmers". "Zhou" in oracle bone inscriptions is also in form of a "field".
Evolution of symbol of week
After Zhou Dynasty destroyed Shang Dynasty, a large number of enfeoffences were held. Since Zhou people claimed to be Xia people, these sub-feudal states were collectively referred to as "Zhuxia" and were later called Huaxia. During this time, Zhou people considered themselves center and called people in east of Dongyi, people in north of Beidi, people in south of Nanman, and people in west of Sirong, thus forming concept of Huayi. Including Qiang people, who did not have same background as themselves and were alienated because they did not enter era of agriculture, and were also humiliated as "Xi Rong" and "Bei Di".
Is Yellow Emperor in Shaanxi or Henan? According to historical data, Yanhuang and Qiang have same origin
Nuwa in Yunnan province: origin of Chinese nation from mythology of Dulong people
Are Yuanmou ancestors of Chinese? DNA test results prove they are already extinct
DNA testing shows that most ethnic groups in China share same origin