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The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

The title of article "Shanshu·Yu Gong" means "tribute in Yu period". The subject of geographical knowledge is geography of late period of Warring States. Legend has it that Yu Great turned China into Kyushu after he dealt with floods, "Yu's huge footprints are drawn like Kyushu". The specific extent of this Kyushu is unknown, and later Kyushu also changed with constant expansion of its territory. "Zhou Li · Xiaguan · Zhifangshi" said: "Southeast is called Yangzhou", "Zhennan is called Jingzhou", "Henan is called Yuzhou", "Zhengdong is called Qingzhou", "Hedong is called Yanzhou", "Zhengxi is called Yongzhou". ”, “Northeast is called Youzhou”, “Hanoi is called Jizhou”, “Zhengbei is called Bingzhou”. It is roughly same as Yugun, except that Yugun does not have "Bingzhou" and "Yuzhou", but more "Xuzhou" and "Lianzhou". "Spring and Autumn Lu · Yushilan · Yushi" combines Kyushu with location and geography of other countries: "What is Kyushu? Between river and Han is Yuzhou, that is, Zhouye. Between two rivers is Jizhou, that is, Jingye. River and Jizhi Middle - Yanzhou, Weiye. East - Qingzhou, Qie. Xishang - Xuzhou, Lue. Southeast - Yangzhou, Yue. South - Jingzhou, Chui. Yane .

The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

Warring States Territory

One, Jizhou

Located to west and north of Yellow River, it is equivalent to today's Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and at that time belonged to states of Jin and Yan.

Not only does it contain Hukou, but it also controls Liang and Qi. Both are renovating Taiyuan, as is Yueyang; Jue soil is only white soil, Jue Fu is only top and bottom, and Jue Tian is only middle. Heng and Wei followed them, and mainland did. Island barbarian leather clothes pinched right into Jieshi River.

Here, from Hukou (junction of Shanxi and Shaanxi) through Liang (mountain Luliang) and its branches, to Taiyuan (ancient Shanxi), Yueyang (south of Yueshan, meaning south of Shanxi), Qinhuai (today's Jiaozuo region) , is home to Zhang River), and finally North China Plain, Hengshui River in Haihe River basin, and Zhangshui River, which flows into Yellow River at Jieshi (not today's Jieshi). "Spring and Autumn Lu": "Jizhou is between two rivers, as well as Jin." Two rivers here belong to Yellow River and Jishui, while Heng and Wei are tributaries of Zhangshui. The quality of soil here belongs to Shanshan, and Tien belongs to Zhongzhong.

The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

In other versions, area around state of Yan (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region) is separately designated as Yuzhou, so ancient Beijing was also called "Yuyan". "Spring and Autumn Lu": "North is Yuzhou and Yanye." "Zhou Li": "The northeast is called Youzhou." During reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, whole country was divided into thirteen prefectures, and Youzhou was one of them. The sphere of government included Yuyang, Shanggu, Yubeiping, Liaoxi. , Liaodong, Xuantu, Le Lang and other counties are part of state of Yang and Korean Peninsula. During Tang Dynasty, envoys from Youzhou Jiedu were assigned to protect Khitans. During reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty, Mount Anlu rebelled based on this. During later Jin Dynasty, Shi Jingtang ceded Khitan with sixteen prefectures to Yuji, and Khitan accepted Youzhou as Nanjing following year. After reunification of Song Dynasty, several important wars took place to restore sixteen prefectures of Yuji and Khitan, but they all failed. After Jin destroyed Liao, Yan became capital and was called "Yangjing". After Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, capital is still located here. In "Zhou Li" there is a concept of "Bingzhou". "Zhengbei's name is Bingzhou." Today it is equivalent of Shanxi Province. In Yuanfeng, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, he established Governor's Department of Bingzhou, one of thirteen departments of prefecture, heading nine counties, including Taiyuan, Shangdan, Xihe, Yunzhong, Dingxiang, Yanmen, Shuofang, Wuyuan, and Shangjun. During Song Dynasty, it was "Bingzhou Road".

Second, Yanzhou

In middle of Jishui (now Yellow River) and ancient Yellow River (now canal). Its main country is Wei. "Annals of Spring and Autumn of Lu": Between He and Ji is Yanzhou, Wei Ye. This is equivalent to today's northeast Shandong and southeast Hebei. "Yugong" mentions that tributaries here are Li and Ju, and lakes are Lei and Xia. Silkworms and lacquer products are produced here.

“Jihe is just Yanzhou. Nine rivers are a road, Leixia is a lake, and Jue and Ju are in harmony. The mulberry soil is silkworm, and it is soil of descending hills. Jue's black grave is soil, grass is only Yao, and wood is only strips, juetian is only medium and low, and jue fuzhen has been same for ten or three years, jue tribute varnishes silk, and jue weaves weaves, floats in ji and lo. reaching in river."

The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

Yanzhou officially became an administrative division when Emperor Wu of Western Han Dynasty appointed governor of Thirteen Prefectures. The head office is located in Puyang, under jurisdiction of Shanyang (under administration of Xiaqiu, Lu County, etc.), Dongjun, Chenliu, Jin, Taishan and six Dongping prefectures. In 11th year of Jianwu of Eastern Han Dynasty (35), seat of Yanzhou was Changyi (now Changyi City, Juye County, Heze City, Shandong Province), and it had jurisdiction over Chenliu, Dongjun, Rencheng, Taishan, Jibei. , and Shanyang (now Yanzhou belongs to Shan Yang County, where government is located in urban area of ​​Juye County, Heze City), Jin and Dongping Eight Prefectures, generally cover western part of Shandong and eastern part of Henan. During Three Kingdoms period, territory of Yanzhou belonged to Wei. After Cao Cao took over Jizhou Mu, in order to expand sphere of influence, other states were reduced and merged into Jizhou, but jurisdiction of Yanzhou remained unchanged and still ruled eight counties. Only Chenliu was changed to Chenliuguo during Han Dynasty, and Renchengguo was changed to Rencheng County. At beginning of Sui Dynasty, old system was applied, and in third year of reign of Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty (583), "the prefectures were abolished and system of prefectures and counties was adopted." In second year of great cause of Emperor Yandi (606), Yanzhou in Xiaqiu was transformed into Lu County, which headed ten counties. The Tang Dynasty restored Yanzhou, and Yanzhou was upgraded to capital's governor's mansion. After Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, scale of Yanzhou continued to shrink, and it already belonged to Jining, and after new China, Yanzhou became a county.

Three, Qingzhou

This is approximately Shandong Peninsula, which in ancient times belonged to state of Qi. "Annals of Spring and Autumn Lu": "East is Qingzhou, Qi Ye." It says that Qingzhou is located "between Haidai and Dai", sea is sea, and Dai is Mount Tai. Du Fu said, “What about Mrs. Dai Zongfu? Qi and Lu are still young.” Mount Tai was a sacred mountain in ancient east, and also a border mountain between Qi and Lu. In ancient times, Dongyi people lived on Shandong Peninsula. "Lai is eastern part of Shandong Peninsula. In ancient times, there was state of Donglai, which was destroyed by state of Qi. Wei and Zi are two rivers that are sources of today's Weifang and Zibo. Through Wenshui, you can reach Jishui (the ancient Yellow river). Salt, silk fabrics and minerals are produced here. Therefore, state of Qi has power of fish and salt, and its industry and trade are developed. It is a great country.

Haidai is Qingzhou. Wei and Yi are brief, Wei and Zi have their own way. Huetu's White Tomb was widely criticized by seaside. Juetian is only top and bottom, while Jue Fu is middle and top. Jue tribute to salt, sea things are wrong. Daigan silk, swamp, lead, pine, outlandish rocks. Cai Yi is a shepherd. Jue 篚 □ silk. Sailing to Wen, reaching Yuji.

The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

Qingzhou was first established under Western Han Dynasty, and governor of Qingzhou was appointed as one of governors of thirteen prefectures. Passed down from generation to generation. Under Tang Dynasty, Qingzhou General Administration was established to govern Qingzhou, Zizhou, Qizhou, Mizhou, Laizhou, and Dengzhou. Under Song Dynasty, Qingzhou's jurisdiction began to decline and it had jurisdiction over: Yidu County, Lingzi County, Shouguang County, Qiancheng County, Linqiu County, and Box County, which belonged to Jingdong East Road. The Qing dynasty changed its name to Jinan Prefecture while original Qingzhou continued to shrink. New China founded city of Qingzhou (county level)

Fourth, Xuzhou

Ancient Xuzhou belongs to Xishui River Basin, which is an area of ​​Lu State south of Mount Tai. "Spring and Autumn Lu": "Xishang is Xuzhou, and Lu Ye." "Yu Gong": "Hai, Dai and Huai are Xuzhou", which defines extent of Xuzhou from Mount Tai to Huai River, which is today southern Shandong. and northern Jiangsu. This is mainly Huaihe river system, and its tributaries are Xishui and Yishui. Seeds can be sown in Mt. Maine and Hayama areas. Seafood and textile production.

Hai, Dai and Huai are Xuzhou. Huai and Yi are Qi, Meng and Yu are Qiyi, Dai is pig, and Dongyuan is Pingping. Tomb of Juetu Chiyan, vegetation is gradually covered. Jue Tian Wei Shang Zhong, Jue Fu Zhong Zhong. There are only five soil colors in Jue Gong: Yupan Xadi, Yiyang Gutong, Xibing Fuqing, Huayi Zhuzhu, and fish. Jue 篚xuanxian, onyx. Floating in Huai and Xi, reaching in river.

The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

Map of ancient Kyushu

From Xuzhou. Name Liberation says: Xu, Shu Ye, rustic and soothing. Its land reaches sea in east, Dai in north and Huai in south. The Zhou dynasty destroyed Yin and Shang dynasties, controlled profits and losses of second generation, and appointed officials and distribution of duties. Xuzhou was merged with Qingzhou. During Three Kingdoms period, Cao Cao moved department of governor of Xuzhou to Pengcheng, which was called Xuzhou from beginning. In early Tang Dynasty, names of Xuzhou and Pengcheng County changed many times, and in middle and late period, it was Jiedushi Station. Xuzhou here is actually just a city, not a region. The scope of Xuzhou in ancient times was much larger than that of Xuzhou today.

Fifth, Yangzhou

"Spring and Autumn Lu": "Southeast is Yangzhou and Yue." This shows that Yangzhou is mainly in southeast region, at that time it was country of Yue, which is today districts of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. "Yugong": "Huaihai is only Yangzhou", and only range of Yangzhou is from Huaihe River to sea. It mentions several place names, Peng Li (Peng Li was not Poyang Lake in ancient times, but a large lake in north of Anqing), Sanjiang (specific location unknown, possibly referring to Yangtze River, Han River, and Gan River, all flowing into Peng Li), Zhenze (Lake Taihu). It produces teeth, leather, feathers and animal hair. Dongyi lives here, with birds as totems, "Nyaoyi Huifu", orange pomelo is also produced and there are tin mines (in fact, there are tin mines in Wuxi).

Huaihai is Yangzhou. Peng Li is both a pig and a bird in which you live. Since Sanjiang entered, Zhenjie Pingding has been inhabited. The scorpion is scattered, grass is only young, and tree is only Qiao. Jue's soil is only covered in mud. Jue Tian only goes down and down, Jue Fu goes up and down and goes up wrong. Jue Gong has only three grades of gold: Yao, Kunxiao, 簜, tooth, leather, feather, and Mao, wood. Nyaoi flower clothes. Jue woven shell, Jue Bao orange pomelo, Xigong. By river and sea, it reaches Huai and Xi.

The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

The official establishment of administrative regions in Yangzhou also began with creation of thirteen prefectures by Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty. Yangzhou administered Lujiang County, Jiujiang County, Kuaiji County, Danyang County, Yuzhang County, and Luan County. south of Huai River. During Sui and Tang dynasties, Yangzhou continued to shrink in size. In eighth year of Tang Gaozu Wude's reign (625), Yangzhou's government was transferred from Danyang to Jiangbei. By now, basic unity of name, division, and geographical location between historical Yangzhou and today's Yangzhou has been completed. In first year of reign of Emperor Taizong Zhengguan (627), country was divided into 10 provinces, and Yangzhou belonged to Huainan Province. In first year of Xuanzong's reign of Tianbao (742), Yangzhou was transformed into Guangling County. In first year of Emperor Suzong's reign of Qianyuan (758), Guangling County was returned to Yangzhou.

Six, Jingzhou

Spring and Autumn Lu: "South is Jingzhou, and Chu too." Vitex, now known as Vitex, was also known as Chu in ancient times and was used to punish and flog prisoners. The state of Chu originated in Jingshan (probably rich in vitex). "Yugong": "Jingzhou and Hengyang is only Jingzhou", from Jingshan south of Hengshan is Jingzhou. In fact, Heng Mountain in ancient times was Funyu Mountain in Henan Province, and during Warring States period, Heng Mountain was already today Heng Mountain in Hunan Province, which may be due to southward migration of Miao people. The main rivers are Yangtze River, Han River, Tuojiang River and Qianjiang River. There is a large lake called Yunmengjie. Although it has disappeared in Wuhan area today, there are still many lakes, so Wuhan is a city of a thousand lakes. The production is similar to that of Yangzhou, but there is one known as "Baojiao Jingmao", which is a kind of sacrificial vegetation. The state of Chu attacked king of Zhou. During Spring and Autumn period, Guan Zhong of State of Qi used justification of a crusade against State of Chu that “Er Gong Baomao cannot enter, king’s sacrifice cannot be divided, there is no way to reduce wine. and widow is a tribute.

Jing and Hengyang are Jingzhou. The Jiang and Han dynasties belonged to sea, Jiujiang Kong Ying, Tuo and Qian in both directions, clouds, soil and dreams. The soil of Jue is only smeared with mud, Jue Tian is only lower middle, and Jue Fu is upper and lower. Dani jue feathers, hair, teeth and geweijin are three grades of gold, gong, gan, zhuo, cypress, whetstone, whetstone, 砮, danweijun, zhu and names of three states. Baoyu Jingmao, Juehuang Xuanxuanji Group, Jiujiang Naxi Big Turtle. Floating in Jiang, Tuo, Qian, Han, beyond Yulo, to Nanhe.

The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

The territory of late state of Chu

In fifth year of reign of Emperor Yuanfeng Wu of Han Dynasty (106 BC), Jingzhou Governor's Department was established. Administration of Nanyang County, Changsha County, Jiangxia County, Nan County, Wuling County, Lingling County, and Guiyang County. Jingzhou of Eastern Han Dynasty had seven prefectures and one hundred and seventeen counties. The seat of government is Hanshou (now north of Hanshou County, Hunan Province). At end of Han Dynasty, he moved to Xiangyang (now Xiangyang City, Hubei Province). In 14th year of Jian'an, Liu Bei took Jingzhou as a shepherd and transferred to public security organs (today's northwest of public security in Hubei Province). After "borrowing Jingzhou", he moved to Jiangling. After Battle of Chibi, Cao Cao, Liu Bei, and Sun Quan divided Jingzhou: Cao Cao occupied Nanyang and Nanjun counties, Liu Bei occupied Lingling, Guiyang, Wuling, and Changsha counties south of Yangtze River, and Sun Quan occupied Jiangxia county. . In fourteenth year of Jian'an reign (209), Zhou Yu defeated Cao Ren and captured Nanjun. Sun Quan worshiped Zhou Yu as a partisan general, led prefect of Nanjun, and was located in Jiangling (Nanjun's government). In fifteenth year of Jian'an (210), after Zhou Yu's death, Sun Quan Nalusu suggested that he "loan" his part (Jinan County only) to Liu Bei, so Liu Bei occupied most of Jingzhou territory. In twenty-fourth year of Jian'an (219), Sun Cao jointly defeated Guan Yu and partitioned Jingzhou. In eighth year of reign of Jin Yonghe (352), Jingzhou settled in Jiangling. During Southern and Northern Dynasties, Emperor Qihe, Emperor Liang Yuan, Huliang, and Xiao Xian used Jingzhou as their capital. During this period, Jingzhou area continued to shrink. During Sui and Tang dynasties, Jingzhou today was limited to western part of Hubei Province and was called Jiangling, which belonged to Shannan Road. Later, scale of Jingzhou was equivalent to today's Jingzhou city.

Seven, Youzhou

Yuzhou roughly corresponds to modern province of Henan. "Spring and Autumn Lu": "The river and Han are Yuzhou and also Zhou." "Spring and Autumn Lu" says that Youzhou is south of Yellow River and north of Han River. The main country is Zhou. In fact, there are Wei, Han, etc. countries. "Yugong": "Jinghe is Youzhou", and scale of Youzhou in "Yugong" is more clear, referring to north of Jingshan and south of Yellow River. Today it is roughly area of ​​Henan, with exception of Nanyang and Xinyang. The main rivers are Yi, Luo, Yu and Jian, all of which flow into Yellow River. There is a lake called Heze (not today's Heze) where silk fabrics and lacquer products are produced.

Jinghe is Yuzhou. Yi, Luo, Yu, and Jian fall into river, and Yingbo is a pig. Guide Hejie, be Meng Zhu. Jue soil is just soil, and earth is buried in a grave. Juetian is only middle and top, but Jue Fu is wrong and top middle. Juekong lac, fen, 絺, 纻, Jue Gong Xian, 纩, Xigong chime wrong. Swimming in Luo, reaching in river.

During Western Han Dynasty, Governor Yuzhou was appointed as one of governors of thirteen prefectures governing Yingchuan, Runan, Pei, and Liang Guo counties. Qiao (Bozhou) was seat of governor of Yuzhou during Eastern Han Dynasty. During Cao Wei Three Kingdoms period, Youzhou's government was located in Ancheng, and during Western Jin Dynasty, Youzhou's government was located in Chen (Huaiyang) County. During Northern and Southern Dynasties, Youzhou's jurisdiction shrank, and Youzhou governor was abolished under Sui dynasty. Today Yu becomes an abbreviation for Henan.

Eight, Liangzhou (Yizhou)

"Yu Gong": "Huayang and Heishui are Liangzhou", Liangzhou is located in south of Huashan (Qinling, Zhongnanshan) and north of Heishui (Jinsha River). This is equivalent to today's areas of Sichuan, Chongqing and Hanzhong. The main rivers originate in Mingshan region. There are Minjiang River, Tuojiang River, Qianjiang River and other rivers that can be navigable with Jianghan. Rich in minerals such as iron and silver. Animal products are plentiful.

Huayang and Heishui are cities of Liangzhou. Ming and Yi are both arts, and Tuo and Qian are both paths. Cai, Meng Luping and Yi Ji. Juetu Qingli, Juetian Wei Xia Shang, Jue Fu Xia Zhong, three mistakes. Juegong, iron, silver, Lu, 砮璆, bear, 罴, fox, raccoon, and Zhipi, all leaning west because of Huang, swam into Qian, surpassed Mian, entered Wei, and spoiled river.

The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

Under Western Han Dynasty, Liangzhou's realm was Yizhou's realm. Yizhou was one of governors of thirteen states. His scope was to govern entire southwestern region, including Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Chongqing. present day Guanghan, Sichuan). In Yizhou 191, Mu Liu Yan came to rule Mianzhu. In 194, state administration was transferred to Chengdu, and since then, Yizhou has also had meaning of pseudonym Chengdu. This title was used until almost end of Western Jin Dynasty. But name of city of Chengdu has never changed. During Three Kingdoms period, Liu Bei occupied Yizhou and founded Shuhang. The Western Jin dynasty destroyed Shu Han, divided Yizhou, and founded Liangzhou. There are two states here. In third year of reign of Emperor Kaihuang (583) of Sui Dynasty, all counties in world were abolished, and counties were administered by prefectures. At that time, Yizhou was only a county, and its size was approximately equal to that of Chengdu. Under Tang Dynasty, Yizhou became one of most developed cities in south, and together with Yangzhou was called "Yang Yi Yi Er". In first year of Tianbao's reign (742), state was made into a prefecture and Yizhou became Shu County, and Yizhou was removed.

Nine, Yongzhou (Lianzhou)

"Spring and Autumn Lu": "West is Yongzhou, and so is Qin." Han Chiayi "On passage of Qin": "Qin Xiaogong owns land of Yongzhou in accordance with firmness of Weihan." "Yu Gong: "Black Water, Western River is just Yongzhou." Xihe is area of ​​the Yellow River between Qin and Jin dynasties, indicating that Yongzhou territory is west of Yellow River and east of Heishui. Heishui is difficult to define, but in general it is Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region. The main rivers Jing, Wei flow into Yellow River, and weak waters flow to west. It is also mentioned that Sunwei Mountain is an important geographical concept, which should be a mountain in northwest. "Shanshu Shun Dian" contains: "Three seedlings are in Sunwei." The captives expelled from Sanmiao went to Sanwei region. Mostly loess lands (Loess Plateau). Jade such as Qinghai, Juegong Weiqiu, Lin and Langgan jade is produced. The main ethnic groups are Xirong, who today are Qiang, Tibetans, and so on.

Heishui and Xihe are only in Yongzhou. Ruoshui is west, Jing belongs to Weirui, Qiju is from there, Fengshui is same. Jing and Qi travel, Zhongnan and Dunwu, like birds and mice. Initially, as for Ino. Three dangerous houses, three Miao Pixu. Jue soil is yellow soil, Jue Tian is upper and upper, and Jue Fu is middle and lower. Jue Gong Weiqiu, Lin and Langgan. Floating in accumulated rocks like Longmen and Xihe, they will meet in Weirui. Zhipi Kunlun, Xizhi, Qusou, Xirong will be described.

The Han Emperor Wu appointed Yongzhou, one of governors of thirteen prefectures, but changed Yongzhou to Liangzhou. Emperor Wu ordered Shuofang not to order governor to be supervised outside thirteen prefectures. Simultaneously with Xu's systems, Liang, Yu, Xia and Zhou Yong was changed to Liang, Liang was replaced by Yi, and history of governors in all thirteen departments was established. “In second year of Yuanshou's reign (121 BC), Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty Huo Qubing defeated Xiongnu. To showcase martial arts and military power of Han Empire, Western Han government created Wuwei County in territory of former king of Xutu, and Wuwei was named after him. The Eastern Han dynasty was renamed Yongzhou and state of Wei was also changed back to Liangzhou. During Sixteen Kingdoms period, Xiliang, Nanliang, Houliang and other regimes were established in this area. Prior to Tang Dynasty, in second year of reign of Tang Wude (619), Li Gui of Dalian was destroyed by Li Yuan. The Tang Dynasty abolished Wuwei In first year of Zhengguan (627) of Emperor Taizong, Tang Dynasty divided county into 10 provinces. Liangzhou belonged to Longyou Road, and Liangzhou's jurisdiction was reduced. Judging from Kyushu span mentioned above, Kyushu's "Yugong" span "expands to sea in east, covered with quicksand in west, and Shuonan and Shengjiao end in four seas. “Mostly Qin, Chu, Qi, Yang, Jin and Yue. It must be geographic location at end of Spring and Autumn period, because State of Jin had not yet been divided, and State of Yue had already destroyed State of Wu. Apart from these countries, Pearl River Basin, people still know little about it. In Qin Dynasty and Han, after expansion of territory, Guangdong, Guangxi, Northeast and West regions gradually opened up and developed. The concept of Kyushu in Shangshu Yugun: This is not concept of Kyushu in Xia Dynasty, but during Warring States period.

History of thirteen prefectures of Han Dynasty

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